n the paper, the simulation PROP5 program with the road model defined as a noise source and road surroundings model, is used to predict the efficiency of noise protecting means for the chosen building. The appropriate models of verified accuracy have been chosen by comparison of the simulation results with field measurements (Walerian et al., 2010). Here, using the pre-tested simulation program, the possibility of acoustic climate improvement has been analyzed in the ranges of practical variations of the input parameters. The road parameters: its geometry (number of lanes and their positions) and traffic structure over lanes (vehicle flow rates and their average speeds) have been taken under consideration as changeable parameters, that could be corrected to obtain acoustical climate improvement. Moreover, an acoustical screen designing has been considered. The screen efficiency has been evaluated under conditions defined by the input parameters of the road and its surroundings.
In this paper, numerical results of modeling of acoustic waves propagation are presented. For calculation of the acoustic fluctuations, a solution of the full non-linear Euler equation is used. The Euler equations are solved with the use of a numerical scheme of third-order accuracy in space and time. The paper shows a validation process of the described method. This method is suitable also for an aerodynamic noise assessment on the basis of unsteady mean flow field data obtained from a CFD calculations. In such case this method is called a hybrid CFD/CAA method. The proposed method is numerically decoupled with CFD solution, therefore the information about the mean unsteady flow field can be obtained using an arbitrary CFD method (solver). The accuracy of the acoustic field assessment depends on the quality of the CFD solutions. This decomposition reduces considerably the computational cost in comparison with direct noise calculations. The presented Euler acoustic postprocessor (EAP) has been used for modeling of the acoustic waves propagation in a cavity and in the flow field around a cylinder and an aerodynamic profile.
In the paper, the simulation PROP5 program is used to predict the sound level in proximity of a road with defined surroundings. The simulation involves road geometry (number of lanes and their positions) and traffic structure (vehicle flow rates and their average speeds), with equivalent omnidirectional point sources representing vehicles. In Part I of the paper, the agreement between measurement and simulation results is tested to verify the accuracy degree of the applied models of a road, as a noise source and propagation throughout surrounding space. In Part II, using the pre-tested simulation program, the possibility of acoustic climate improvement has been analyzed.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of noise exposure and additional risk factors on permanent hearing threshold shift. Three additional risk factors were: exposure to organic solvents, smoking and elevated blood pressure. The data on exposure and health status of employees were collected in 24 factories. The study group comprised of 3741 noise male exposed workers of: mean age 39±8 years, mean tenure 16±7 years and LEX,8h = 86 ± 5 dB. For each subject, hearing level was measured with pure tone audiometry, blood pressure and noise exposure were assessed from the records of local occupational health care and obligatory noise measurements performed by employers. Smoking and solvent exposure were assessed with questionnaire. The study group was divided into subgroups with respect to the considered risk factors. In the analysis, the distribution of hearing level of each subgroup was compared to the predicted one which the standard calculation method described in ISO 1999:1990. For each of the considered risk factors, the difference between measured and calculated hearing level distribution was used to establish, by the least square method, a noise dose related correction square function for the standard method. The considered risk factors: solvent exposure, smoking and elevated blood pressure combined with noise exposure, may increase degree of hearing loss.
Additional sound sources are used as actuators in the vast majority of active noise reduction systems. One of the possible opportunities to extend the field of applications of active noise reduction systems is using active structures of variable sound insulation. The paper presents an analysis of ways of reducing noise with a structure of variable sound insulation consisting of a metal plate, active elements (Macro Fiber Composite), and a control system. The paper presents results of acoustic radiation simulations and measurements of sound intensity generated by the structure under the influence of stimulation by an acoustic wave. Simulations of mechanical vibrations and acoustic radiation for the plate were performed with the finite element method and ANSYS software. Simulation results made it possible to select locations for gluing the active elements and sensors. Analyses of the sound pressure level in the space to which the plate is radiating made it possible to determine dominant frequencies in the characteristics and, as a result, indicate vibration modes that can be reduced. Sound intensity measurements were performed with a three-way probe of USP mini Microflown. Results of simulations and measurements show that it is possible to achieve an improvement of the insulating power of a metal plate by approx. 10 dB.
In this study, an artificial neural network application was performed to tell if 18 plates of the same material in different shapes and sizes were cracked or not. The cracks in the cracked plates were of different depth and sizes and were non-identical deformations. This ANN model was developed to detect whether the plates under test are cracked or not, when four plates have been selected randomly from among a total of 18 ones. The ANN model used in the study is a model uniquely tailored for this study, but it can be applied to all systems by changing the weight values and without changing the architecture of the model. The developed model was tested using experimental data conducted with 18 plates and the results obtained mainly correspond to this particular case. But the algorithm can be easily generalized for an arbitrary number of items.
Sound absorption coefficient is a commonly used parameter to characterize the acoustic properties of sound absorbing materials. It is defined within the frequency range of 100-5 000 Hz. In the industrial conditions, many appliances radiating acoustic energy of the frequency range of above 5000 Hz are used and at the same time it is known that a noise within the frequency range of 5 000-50 000 Hz can have a harmful effect on people,hence there is a need to define the coefficient in this frequency range. The article presents a proposal for a method of measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of materials in the frequency range from 5 000 Hz to 50 000 Hz. This method is a modification of the reverberation method with the use of interrupted noise.
Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences and Faculty of Medical Sciences starting from December 2012, launched joint study in order to investigate personal noise exposure and associated health effects in general school teachers population, starting from kindergartens up to high schools in Stip, Macedonia. In order to determine workplace associated noise exposure and associated health effects in this specific profession, a full shift noise exposure of 40 teachers from 1 kindergarten, 2 primary and 2 high schools were measured in real conditions using noise dosimeters. A-weighted equivalent-continuous sound pressure levels (LAeq) of each teacher were recorded during single activities (classes). Normalized 8-hours exposure, termed the noise exposure level (Lex;8 h) was also computed. Daily noise dose is another descriptor for noise exposure that was determined as a measure of the total sound energy to which workers have been exposed, as a result of working in the varying noise levels. Health effects were assessed trough a full scale epidemiological study which included 231 teachers from the same schools. Specific questionnaire was used to extract information about subject’s perception on occupational noise exposure, as well as theirs occupational and medical history.
Noise measurements have been carried out at eleven different sites located in three prominent cities of the Tarai region of India to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation belts in reducing traffic noise along the roadsides. Attenuation per doubling of distance has been computed for each site and excess attenuation at different 1/3 octave frequencies has been estimated. The average excess attenuation is found to be approximately 15 dB over the low frequencies (200 Hz to 500 Hz) and between 15 dB to 20 dB over the high frequencies (8 kHz to 12.5 kHz). Over the critical middle frequencies (1-4 kHz), the average excess attenuation (between 10-15 dB) though not as high, is still significant, with a number of sites showing an excess attenuation of 15 dB or more at 1 kHz. The results indicate that sufficiently dense vegetation belts along the roadsides may prove as effective noise barriers and significant attenuation may be achieved over the critical middle frequencies (1-4 kHz).
Previous studies concerning the categorisation method have been based on short daytime measure- ments. These studies demonstrated urban-noise stratification in the daytime. Nevertheless, legislation and standards refer to noise estimation throughout the day. This paper presents the first attempt to apply the categorisation method to indicators obtained through long-term measurements. The study was conducted in Plasencia, Extremadura (Spain) which has approximately 41,500 inhabitants. First, we conducted a stratification of the roads using the categorisation method. Second, long-term measurements (approxi- mately one week) were conducted at different sampling locations across different categories of streets. The results were analysed by category. Moreover, the profile of the noise-level variation was analysed during the day. The results revealed a stratification of sound levels measured across the different categories. Furthermore, we found health risks due to the noise levels in this town. Short-term measurements were also conducted to complete the categorisation method suitability analysis.
In spite of the fact that standardizing operations and increased awareness of hazards led to a significant improvement of vibroacoustic climate of operator’s stands of new machines, their long-term operation - often under difficult conditions - leads to a fast degradation of acoustic qualities of machines. Temporary operations performed during surveys and periodical overhauls are rarely effective, due to the lack of any guidelines. In this situation the authors propose the algorithm for selection of eventual screens or sound absorbing and sound insulating partitions, utilizing the measuring procedure aimed at identification, at the operator’s stand, of main noise components originated from various sources. On the basis of this procedure, the vibroacoustic energy propagation paths in the machine was estimated.
The use of periodic structures as noise abatement devices has already been the object of considerable research seeking to understand its efficiency and see to what extent they can provide a functional solu- tion in mitigating noise from different sources. The specific case of sonic crystals consisting of different materials has received special attention in studying the influence of different variables on its acoustic performance. The present work seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of these structures by implementing an approach based on the numerical method of fundamental solutions (MFS) to model the acoustic behavior of two-dimensional sonic crystals. The MFS formulation proposed here is used to evaluate the performance of crystals composed of circular elements, studying the effect of varying dimen- sions and spacing of the crystal elements as well as their acoustic absorption in the sound attenuation provided by the global structure, in what concerns typical traffic noise sources, and establishing some broad indications for the use of those structures.
Annoyance ratings for artificially created noises, resembling the main characteristics of temporal wind turbine noise, were studied by means of a listening experiment involving 21 participants with normal hearing. Three types of stimuli were examined: broadband noise (−4 dB/octave), noise generated by moving cars, and narrowband noise. All stimuli had the sound level fluctuations typical for wind turbine noise. The magnitude of the sound level fluctuations was measured in a quantitative way, by using the characteristics of amplitude modulated sound: modulation rate and modulation depth. Our aim was to examine how the modulation rate and the modulation depth influence the noise annoyance assessment of broadband and narrowband amplitude modulated noises. Three different modulation rates, 1, 2 and 4 Hz, and sound level fluctuations (a measure of the modulation depth), 3, 6, 9 dB, were applied to each type of stimuli (with exception of noise generated by the moving cars) and investigated. The participants in the listening experiment were presented with sound stimuli in laboratory conditions and asked to rate their annoyance on a numerical scale. The results have shown a significant difference between the investigated conditions. The effect was particularly strong between the annoyance judgments of different types of noise (narrow and broadband), and modulated versus unmodulated noises. Temporal fluctuations occurring in wind turbine noise are very pertinent to the perception of annoyance and could be responsible for its being a relatively annoying noise source. The obtained results were discussed and compared to the typical modulation rates and level changes that occur in recordings of real wind turbine noise.
This paper describes the development phases of a numerical-experimental integrated approach aimed at obtaining sufficiently accurate predictions of the noise field emitted by an external gear pump by means of some vibration measurements on its external casing. Harmonic response methods and vibroacoustic analyses were considered as the main tools of this methodology. FFT acceleration spectra were experimentally acquired only in some positions of a 8.5 cc/rev external gear pump casing for some working conditions and considered as external excitation boundary conditions for a FE quite simplified vibroacoustic model. The emitted noise field was computed considering the pump as a ‘black box’, without taking into account the complex dynamics of the gear tooth meshing process and the consequent fluid pressure and load distribution. Sound power tests, based on sound intensity measurements, as well as sound pressure measurements in some positions around the pump casing were performed for validation purposes. The comparisons between numerical and experimental results confirmed the potentiality of this approach in offering a good compromise between noise prediction accuracy and reduction of experimental and modelling requirements.
Simultaneous propagation of vibrations and noise has an important role in the task of minimizing vibroacoustic hazards on the station of operator of the construction machinery. In many cases vibrations transferred by the construction are processed to noise in different points of the machine. As a result, they may increase the level of noise at the workplace. The paper presents the proposition of a simple estimation of noise and vibration propagation paths of the machine. On the basis of the analysis of hydraulic excavator an effectiveness of a proposed procedure was shown. This procedure helps to minimize the transfer of vibrations of power unit in selected frequency ranges which led to the change of overall noise level in operator’s cab about 5 dB.
In parallel to the ultrasonic noise assessment procedures and research activity in the field there have appeared several papers in the domain of so called high-frequency audiometry which covers the range of frequencies 8-20 kHz. They are important for recognizing the harmfulness and hazard of the audible high frequency sound components in the same range as the one of the low frequency ultrasonic noise. On the other hand there exists a certain inconsequent situation in the general approach to the problem of ultrasonic noise hazard assessment in work places environment which concerns the convention to include the frequency range of 10-20 kHz to the domain of ultrasonics. The range consists of one third octave bands of central frequencies: 10, 12.5, 16, 20 kHz and conventionally is called low frequency ultrasonic noise though at least the components of the two lowest bands are naturally audible by a majority of population (mainly young people).The paper presents a discussion related to some achievements of the two domains and some conclusions which could be useful for a more consequent description of the subject and could be taken into account in the future regulations for the ultrasonic noise assessment in work places environment.
This work is a contribution to a normative approach of noise assessment in the professional environment. It permits the identification of the affected workstations on the one hand and on the other hand it constitutes an important support to the preoccupations of the impact study on the environment in plants. It also informs us on the adequate preparation of the procedures required by the Environmental Management System (ISO 14001) being implemented in steel-making complex ArcelorMittal Algeria. It constitutes an answer to the recommended environmental politics. The proposed calculation methods are verified according to the recognized sources (ISO 9612, 2009) and the results will be estimated in relation to the legal thresholds recommended by international bodies. The methodology for measuring the noise exposure levels has been done according to the following steps: work analysis; selection of measurement strategy; measurements; error handling and uncertainty evaluations; calculations; and presentation of results. This will lead us to an implementation of a corrective and preventive action plan intended to master this occupational risk carrying prejudice to the health of the workers.
Problems associated with designing silencers are presented. Results of direct tests of silencers for cooperation with systems of axial fans, as well as results of numerical tests of a two stage acoustic silencer, are given. The numerical tests enabled determining the distribution of acoustic field inside the silencer and in the surrounding area. In those tests A sound insertion losses for different variants of installation inside the silencer, as well as for two different types of absorbing material used to fill the silencer walls, were determined. Impact of design features of silencers on effectiveness of noise reduction is described. Also, a technical sketch of a universal silencer with significant noise reduction (DipS = 39:1 dB) which can be successfully used in many ventilation systems is presented
This paper proposes an active noise control (ANC) application to attenuate siren noise for the patient lying inside ambulance with no sound proofing. From the point of cost effectiveness, a local ANC system based on feedforward scheme is considered. Further, to handle the limitation of limited Zone of Silence (ZoS), the ANC based on virtual sensing is explored. The simulations are done in MATLAB for the recorded ambulance siren noise signal. The results indicate that ANC can be an effective solution for creating a silent environment for the patient.
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) as one of the major avoidable occupational related health issues has been studied for decades. To assess NIHL, the excitation pattern (EP) has been considered as one of the mechanisms to estimate the movements of the basilar membrane (BM) in the cochlea. In this study, two auditory filters, dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) filter and rounded-exponential (ROEX) filter are applied to create two EPs, the velocity EP and the loudness EP respectively. Two noise hazard metrics are proposed based on two proposed EPs to evaluate hazardous levels caused by different types of noise. Moreover Gaussian noise and tone signals are simulated to evaluate performances of the proposed EPs and the noise metrics. The results show that both EPs can reflect the responses of the BM to different types of noise. For Gaussian noise there is a frequency shift between the velocity EP and the loudness EP. The results suggest that both EPs can be used for assessment of NIHL.
Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI) technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent) resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.
Random nature of corona processes in UHV power lines and the accompanying noise is the reason that in practice the best determination of acoustic parameters, necessary for the noise evaluation, is obtained from the continuous monitoring procedure. However because of considerable fluctuations (both the useful signal part and the interfering components), careful selection of monitored parameters is necessary to enable a possibility of automatic determination of the parameters that are required for long-term evaluation of corona noise. In the present work a practical realization is shown for estimation of corona noise parameters, based on the data obtained from continuous monitoring stations, making use of the statistical spectra measurement and characteristic features of corona process acoustic signal. Selected results are presented from continuous monitoring of corona noise generated at a 400 kV power line, with special attention focused on definitions of the measured quantities, which enable automatic estimation of the basic factors required for noise evaluation. Accompanying monitoring of environmental conditions, including humidity, precipitation intensity and fog density, that are well correlated with the corona process intensity, which might definitely increase the filtration efficiency of environmental disturbances and on the other hand, it enables verification of calculation methods applied to corona noise. The paper also contains a description of practical approach to selection signal parameters of corona noise in continuous monitoring stations.
The overall purpose of this study was to assess hearing status in professional orchestral musicians. Standard pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were per- formed in 126 orchestral musicians. Occupational and non-occupational risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) were identified in questionnaire inquiry. Data on sound pressure levels produced by various groups of instruments were also collected and analyzed. Measured hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the theoretical predictions calculated according to ISO 1999 (1990). Musicians were exposed to excessive sound at weekly noise exposure levels of for 81-100 dB (mean: 86.6±4.0 dB) for 5-48 years (mean: 24.0±10.7 years). Most of them (95%) had hearing corresponds to grade 0 of hearing impairment (mean hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz lower than 25 dB). However, high frequency notched audiograms typical for noise-induced hearing loss were found in 35% of cases. Simultaneously, about 35% of audiograms showed typical for NIHL high frequency notches (mainly occurring at 6000 Hz). When analyzing the impact of age, gender and noise exposure on hearing test results both PTA and TEOAE consistently showed better hearing in females vs. males, younger vs. older musicians. But higher exposure to orchestral noise was not associated with poorer hearing tests results. The musician’s audiometric hearing threshold levels were poorer than equivalent non-noise-exposed population and better (at 3000 and 4000 Hz) than expected for noise-exposed population according to ISO 1999 (1990). Thus, music impairs hearing of orchestral musicians, but less than expected from noise exposure.
Chinese is a tonal language, which differentiates it from non-tonal languages in the Western countries. A Chinese character consists of an initial, a final, and a tone. In the present study, the effects of noise and reverberation on the Chinese syllable, initial, final, and tone identification in rooms were investigated by using simulated binaural impulse responses through auralization method. The results show that the syllable identification score is the lowest, the tone identification score is the highest, and the initial identification scores are lower than those of the final identification under the same reverberation time and signal-to-noise ratio condition. The Chinese syllable, initial, and final identification scores increase with the increase of signal-to-noise ratio and decrease of the reverberation time. The noise and reverberation have insignificant effects on the Chinese tone identification scores under most room acoustical environments. The statistical relationship between the Chinese syllable articulation and phoneme articulation had been experimentally proved under different noise and reverberation conditions in simulated rooms.