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Number of results: 21
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Abstract

In this paper, the applications of the multivariate data analysis and optimization on vibration signals from compressors have been tested on the assembly line to identify nonconforming products. The multivariate analysis has wide applicability in the optimization of weather forecasting, agricultural experiments, or, as in this case study, in quality control. The techniques of discriminant analysis and linear program were used to solve the problem. The acceleration and velocity signals used in this work were measured in twenty-five rotating compressors, of which eleven were classified as good baseline compressors and fourteen with manufacturing defects by the specialists in the final acoustic test of the production line. The results obtained with the discriminant analysis separated the conforming and nonconforming groups with a significance level of 0.01, which validated the proposed methodology.
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Abstract

A novel method of active noise control using adaptive radiation sound sources is investigated. A finite element model of a modal enclosed sound field is excited harmonically, representing a noise field in the low-frequency range. The control sources are comprised of elementary dipole sources for which the driving signals are adjusted by an optimization method. Two set-up cases of the proposed compound sources are investigated. The coupling of the control sources with the modal sound field is discussed. The simulated performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a system with distributed simple sources and the results show the effectiveness of the sources with adaptive radiation for active noise control in small enclosures.
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Abstract

There are many industrial environments which are exposed to a high-level noise. It is necessary to protect people from the noise. Most of the time, the consumer requires a miniature version of a noise canceller to satisfy the internal working place requirements. Very important thing is to select the most appropriate personal hearing protection device, for example an earplug. It should guarantee high passive noise attenuation and allow for secondary sound generation in case of active control. In many cases the noise is nonstationary. For instance, some of the noisy devices are switched on and off, speed of some rotors or fans changes, etc. To avoid any severe transient acoustic effects due to potential convergence problems of adaptive systems, a fixed-parameter approach to control is appreciated. If the noise were stationary, it would be possible to design an optimal control filter minimising variance of the signal being the effect of the acoustic noise and the secondary sound interference. Because of noise nonstationarity for most applications, the idea of generalised disturbance defined by a frequency window of different types has been developed by the authors and announced in previous publications. The aim of this paper is to apply such an approach to different earplugs and verify its noise reduction properties. Simulation experiments are conducted based on real world measurements performed using the G. R. A. S. artificial head equipped with an artificial mechanical ear, and the noise recorded in a power plant.
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Abstract

In the article a short historical outline of noise control conferences organized in Poland is given. Those conferences with the participation of Polish specialists have been organized since 1964; since 1976 they have been evolved into International Noise Control Conferences. Silhouettes of four Polish scientists, which have made a large contribution to the noise and vibration control in Poland, are presented. Also the current state of threats by noise and vibrations have been briefly mentioned. The significance of such conferences has been emphasized.
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Abstract

Noise control has gained a lot of attention recently. However, presence of nonlinearities in signal paths for some applications can cause significant difficulties in the operation of control algorithms. In particular, this problem is common in structural noise control, which uses a piezoelectric shunt circuit. Not only vibrating structures may exhibit nonlinear characteristics, but also piezoelectric actuators. In this paper, active device casing is addressed. The objective is to minimize the noise coming out of the casing, by controlling vibration of its walls. The shunt technology is applied. The proposed control algorithm is based on algorithms from a group of soft computing. It is verified by means of simulations using data acquired from a real object.
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Abstract

The nonlinear mathematical model of behavior of controllable viscosity fluid (CVF) under applied external field is presented. A large family of these fluids is commonly used to control responding forces of dampers in vibration control applications. The responding force of a damper with CVF has two components. The first one - uncontrollable - is proportional to the viscosity of a base fluid and velocity of its motion, the second one, which is controllable, depends on the strength of the applied external field. Both are involved in the process of dissipation of unwanted energy from the vibrating systems. An equivalent damping factor based on the principle of energy dissipated during one cycle of damper work under a constant strength external field was calculated. When mass or stiffness is variable the equivalent damping factor can be set accordingly by adjusting the strength of external field to have vibrating damped system purposely/continuously working in the critical or other chosen state. This paper also presents cases of applying periodically changing strengths of an external field synchronized with cycles of periodical motion of the vibrating system to continuously control the damping force within each cycle.
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Abstract

Vibrating plates can be used in Active Noise Control (ANC) applications as active barriers or as secondary sources replacing classical loudspeakers. The system with vibrating plates, especially when nonlinear MFC actuators are used, is nonlinear. The nonlinearity in the system reduces performance of classical feedforward ANC with linear control filters systems, because they cannot cope with harmonics generated by the nonlinearity. The performance of the ANC system can be improved by using nonlinear control filters, such as Artificial Neural Networks or Volterra filters. However, when multiple actuators are mounted on a single plate, which is a common practice to provide effective control of more vibration modes, each actuator should be driven by a dedicated nonlinear control filter. This significantly increases computational complexity of the control algorithm, because adaptation of nonlinear control filters is much more computationally demanding than adaptation of linear FIR filters. This paper presents an ANC system with multiple actuators, which are driven with a single nonlinear filter. To avoid destructive interference of vibrations generated by different actuators the control signal is filtered by appropriate separate linear filters. The control system is experimentally verified and obtained results are reported.
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Abstract

Vibrating plates have been recently used for a number of active noise control applications. They are resistant to difficult environmental conditions including dust, humidity, and even precipitation. However, their properties significantly depend on temperature. The plate temperature changes, caused by ambient temperature changes or plate heating due to internal friction, result in varying response of the plate, and may make it significantly different than response of a fixed model. Such mismatch may deteriorate performance of an active noise control system or even lead to divergence of a model-based adaptation algorithm. In this paper effects of vibrating plate temperature variation on a feedforward adaptive active noise reduction system with the multichannel Filtered-reference LMS algorithm are examined. For that purpose, a thin aluminum plate is excited with multiple Macro-Fiber Composite actuators. The plate temperature is forced by a set of Peltier cells, what allows for both cooling and heating the plate. The noise is generated at one side of the plate, and a major part of it is transmitted through the plate. The goal of the control system is to reduce sound pressure level at a specified area on the other side of the plate. To guarantee successful operation of the control system in face of plate temperature variation, a gain-scheduling scheme is proposed to support the Filtered-reference LMS algorithm.
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Abstract

The active noise-reducing casing developed and promoted by the authors in recent publications have multiple advantages over other active noise control methods. When compared to classical solutions, it allows for obtaining global reduction of noise generated by a device enclosed in the casing. Moreover, the system does not require loudspeakers, and much smaller actuators attached to the casing walls are used instead. In turn, when compared to passive casings, the walls can be made thinner, lighter and with much better thermal transfer than sound-absorbing materials. For active noise control a feedforward structure is usually used. However, it requires an in-advance reference signal, which can be difficult to be acquired for some applications. Fortunately, usually the dominant noise components are due to rotational operations of the enclosed device parts, and thus they are tonal and multitonal. Therefore, it can be adequately predicted and the Internal Model Control structure can be used to benefit from algorithms well developed for feedforward systems. The authors have already tested that approach for a rigid casing, where interaction of the walls was significantly reduced. In this paper the idea is further explored and applied for a light-weight casing, more frequently met in practice, where each vibrating wall of the casing influences all the other walls. The system is verified in laboratory experiments.
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Abstract

Passive noise reduction means are commonly used to reduce noise in the industry but, unfortunately, their effectiveness is poor in the low frequency range. By applying active structural acoustic control to the enclosure walls significant improvement of the insulating properties in this frequency range can be achieved. In this paper a model of double panel structure with ASAC is presented. The structure consists of two aluminium plates separated by an air gap. Two inertial magnetoelectric actuators and two piezoceramic MFC sensors were used for controlling the structure. A multichannel FxLMS algorithm with virtual error microphone technique is used as a control algorithm. The signal of a virtual error microphone is extrapolated basing on signals from MFC sensors. Performance of this actively controlled structure for tonal signals at selected frequencies is presented in the article. During the study, a double panel structure was mounted on one wall of sound insulating enclosure located in an acoustic chamber. During the measurements local and global reduction of noise test signal was investigated.
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Abstract

In the paper the author has described the visualization methods in acoustic flow fields and show how these methods may assist scientists to gain understanding of complex acoustic energy flow in real-life field. A graphical method will be presented to determine the real acoustic wave distribution in the flow field. Visualization of research results, which is unavailable by conventional acoustics metrology, may be shown in the form of intensity streamlines in space, as a shape of floating acoustic wave and intensity isosurface in three-dimensional space. In traditional acoustic metrology, the analysis of acoustic fields concerns only the distribution of pressure levels (scalar variable), however in a real acoustic field both the scalar (acoustic pressure) and vector (the acoustic particle velocity) effects are closely related. Only when the acoustic field is described by both the potential and kinetic energies, we may understand the mechanisms of propagation, diffraction and scattering of acoustic waves on obstacles, as a form of energy image. This attribute of intensity method can also validate the results of CFD/CAA numerical modeling which is very important in any industry acoustic investigations.
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Abstract

The development of digital signal processors and the increase in their computing capabilities bring opportunities to employ algorithms with multiple variable parameters in active noise control systems. Of particular interest are the algorithms based on artificial neural networks. This paper presents an active noise control algorithm based on a neural network and a nonlinear input-output system identification model. The purpose of the algorithm is an active noise control system with a nonlinear primary path. The algorithm uses the NARMAX system identification model. The neural network employed in the proposed algorithm is a multilayer perceptron. The error backpropagation rule with adaptive learning rate is employed to update the weight of the neural network. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulations. Results for narrow-band input signals and nonlinear primary path are presented below.
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Abstract

Optimization of encoding process in video compression is an important research problem, especially in the case of modern, sophisticated compression technologies. In this paper, we consider HEVC, for which a novel method for selection of the encoding modes is proposed. By the encoding modes we mean e.g. coding block structure, prediction types and motion vectors. The proposed selection is done basing on noise-reduced version of the input sequence, while the information about the video itself, e.g. transform coefficients, is coded basing on the unaltered input. The proposed method involves encoding of two versions of the input sequence. Further, we show realization proving that the complexity is only negligibly higher than complexity of a single encoding. The proposal has been implemented in HEVC reference software from MPEG and tested experimentally. The results show that the proposal provides up to 1.5% bitrate reduction while preserving the same quality of a decoded video.
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Abstract

During operation, construction machines generate high noise levels which can adversely affect the health and the job performance of operators. The noise control techniques currently applied to reduce the noise transmitted into the operator cab are all based on the decrease of the sound pressure level. Merely reducing this noise parameter may be suitable for the compliance with the legislative requirements but, unfortunately, it is not sufficient to improve the subjective human response to noise. The absolute necessity to guarantee comfortable and safe conditions for workers, requires a change of perspective and the identification of different noise control criteria able to combine the reduction of noise levels with that of psychophysical descriptors representing those noise attributes related to the subjective acoustical discomfort. This paper presents the results of a study concerning the “customization” of a methodology based on Sound Quality for the noise control of construction machines. The purpose is to define new hearing-related criteria for the noise control able to guarantee not only reduced noise levels at the operator position but also a reduced annoyance perception.
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Abstract

The assessment of the uncertainty of measurement results, an essential problem in environmental acoustic investigations, is undertaken in the paper. An attention is drawn to the - usually omitted - problem of the verification of assumptions related to using the classic methods of the confidence intervals estimation, for the controlled measuring quantity. Especially the paper directs attention to the need of the verification of the assumption of the normal distribution of the measuring quantity set, being the base for the existing and binding procedures of the acoustic measurements assessment uncertainty. The essence of the undertaken problem concerns the binding legal and standard acts related to acoustic measurements and recommended in: 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM) (OIML 1993), developed under the aegis of the International Bureau of Measures (BIPM). The model legitimacy of the hypothesis of the normal distribution of the measuring quantity set in acoustic measurements is discussed and supplemented by testing its likelihood on the environment acoustic results. The Jarque-Bery test based on skewness and flattening (curtosis) distribution measures was used for the analysis of results verifying the assumption. This test allows for the simultaneous analysis of the deviation from the normal distribution caused both by its skewness and flattening. The performed experiments concerned analyses of the distribution of sound levels: LD, LE, LN, LDWN, being the basic noise indicators in assessments of the environment acoustic hazards.
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Abstract

Limited Traffic Zone (LTZ) is a planning strategy that is more and more adopted by municipalities in Europe to improve their environmental conditions. It consists in the prohibition for traditional vehicles to circulate in specific areas. Although the main aim is to tackle air pollution problems, positive effects are registered in terms of reduction of noise annoyance and in terms of improved “quality of life” if specific conditions are respected. On the other side under the drive of the global market, the number of circulating electric vehicles in urban sites is also increasing. In the next years we expect to experience a new and not well-known urban soundscape. In this paper is presented an overview of recent urban projects and policies that deal with noise control and how these experiences will match into the next years with the sound characteristics of new electric vehicles for private and public transportation.
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Abstract

This paper proposes an active noise control (ANC) application to attenuate siren noise for the patient lying inside ambulance with no sound proofing. From the point of cost effectiveness, a local ANC system based on feedforward scheme is considered. Further, to handle the limitation of limited Zone of Silence (ZoS), the ANC based on virtual sensing is explored. The simulations are done in MATLAB for the recorded ambulance siren noise signal. The results indicate that ANC can be an effective solution for creating a silent environment for the patient.
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Abstract

Active Noise Control (ANC) of noise transmitted through a vibrating plate causes many problems not observed in classical ANC using loudspeakers. They are mainly due to vibrations of a not ideally clamped plate and use of nonlinear actuators, like MFC patches. In case of noise transmission though a plate, nonlinerities exist in both primary and secondary paths. Existence of nonlinerities in the system may degrade performance of a linear feedforward control system usually used for ANC. The performance degradation is especially visible for simple deterministic noise, such as tonal noise, where very high reduction is expected. Linear feedforward systems in such cases are unable to cope with higher harmonics generated by the nonlinearities. Moreover, nonlinearities, if not properly tackled with, may cause divergence of an adaptive control system. In this paper a feedforward ANC system reducing sound transmitted through a vibrating plate is presented. The ANC system uses nonlinear control filters to suppress negative effects of nonlinearies in the system. Filtered-error LMS algorithm, found more suitable than usually used Filtered-reference LMS algorithm, is employed for updating parameters of the nonlinear filters. The control system is experimentally verified and obtained results are discussed.
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Abstract

For many adaptive noise control systems the Filtered-Reference LMS, known as the FXLMS algorithm is used to update parameters of the control filter. Appropriate adjustment of the step size is then important to guarantee convergence of the algorithm, obtain small excess mean square error, and react with required rate to variation of plant properties or noise nonstationarity. There are several recipes presented in the literature, theoretically derived or of heuristic origin. This paper focuses on a modification of the FXLMS algorithm, were convergence is guaranteed by changing sign of the algorithm steps size, instead of using a model of the secondary path. A TakagiSugeno-Kang fuzzy inference system is proposed to evaluate both the sign and the magnitude of the step size. Simulation experiments are presented to validate the algorithm and compare it to the classical FXLMS algorithm in terms of convergence and noise reduction.
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Abstract

There are many industrial environments which are exposed to a high-level noise, sometimes much higher than the level of speech. Verbal communication is then practically unfeasible. In order to increase the speech intelligibility, appropriate speech enhancement algorithms can be used. It is impossible to filter off the noise completely from the acquired signal by using a conventional filter, because of two reasons. First, the speech and the noise frequency contents are overlapping. Second, the noise properties are subject to change. The adaptive realisation of the Wiener-based approach can be, however, applied. Two structures are possible. One is the line enhancer, where the predictive realisation of the Wiener approach is used. The benefit of using this structure it that it does not require additional apparatus. The second structure takes advantage of the high level of noise. Under such condition, placing another microphone, even close to the primary one, can provide a reference signal well correlated with the noise disturbing the speech and lacking the information about the speech. Then, the classical Wiener filter can be used, to produce an estimate of the noise based on the reference signal. That noise estimate can be then subtracted from the disturbed speech. Both algorithms are verified, based on the data obtained from the real industrial environment. For laboratory experiments the G. R. A. S. artificial head and two microphones, one at back side of an earplug and another at the mouth are used.
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Abstract

In the areas of acoustic research or applications that deal with not-precisely-known or variable conditions, a method of adaptation to the uncertainness or changes is usually necessary. When searching for an adaptation algorithm, it is hard to overlook the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. Its simplicity, speed of computation, and robustness has won it a wide area of applications: from telecommunication, through acoustics and vibration, to seismology. The algorithm, however, still lacks a full theoretical analysis. This is probabely the cause of its main drawback: the need of a careful choice of the step size - which is the reason why so many variable step size flavors of the LMS algorithm has been developed. This paper contributes to both the above mentioned characteristics of the LMS algorithm. First, it shows a derivation of a new necessary condition for the LMS algorithm convergence. The condition, although weak, proved useful in developing a new variable step size LMS algorithm which appeared to be quite different from the algorithms known from the literature. Moreover, the algorithm proved to be effective in both simulations and laboratory experiments, covering two possible applications: adaptive line enhancement and active noise control.
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