A real narrowband noise signal representation in the form of an analytical signal in the Hilbert space is presented in the paper. This analytical signal is illustrated in a variable complex plane as a mark with defined amplitude, phase, pulsation and instantaneous frequency. A block diagram of a broadband product detector in a quadrature system is presented. Measurement results of an autocorrelation function of a noise signal are shown and the application of such solution in a noise radar for precise determination of distance changes as well as velocities of these changes are also presented. Conclusions and future plans for applications of the presented detection technique in broadband noise radars bring the paper to an end.
Simultaneous propagation of vibrations and noise has an important role in the task of minimizing vibroacoustic hazards on the station of operator of the construction machinery. In many cases vibrations transferred by the construction are processed to noise in different points of the machine. As a result, they may increase the level of noise at the workplace. The paper presents the proposition of a simple estimation of noise and vibration propagation paths of the machine. On the basis of the analysis of hydraulic excavator an effectiveness of a proposed procedure was shown. This procedure helps to minimize the transfer of vibrations of power unit in selected frequency ranges which led to the change of overall noise level in operator’s cab about 5 dB.
Chinese is a tonal language, which differentiates it from non-tonal languages in the Western countries. A Chinese character consists of an initial, a final, and a tone. In the present study, the effects of noise and reverberation on the Chinese syllable, initial, final, and tone identification in rooms were investigated by using simulated binaural impulse responses through auralization method. The results show that the syllable identification score is the lowest, the tone identification score is the highest, and the initial identification scores are lower than those of the final identification under the same reverberation time and signal-to-noise ratio condition. The Chinese syllable, initial, and final identification scores increase with the increase of signal-to-noise ratio and decrease of the reverberation time. The noise and reverberation have insignificant effects on the Chinese tone identification scores under most room acoustical environments. The statistical relationship between the Chinese syllable articulation and phoneme articulation had been experimentally proved under different noise and reverberation conditions in simulated rooms.
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious occupational related health problem worldwide. The A-wave impulse noise could cause severe hearing loss, and characteristics of such kind of impulse noise in the joint time-frequency (T-F) domain are critical for evaluation of auditory hazard level. This study focuses on the analysis of A-wave impulse noise in the T-F domain using continual wavelet transforms. Three different wavelets, referring to Morlet, Mexican hat, and Meyer wavelets, were investigated and compared based on theoretical analysis and applications to experimental generated A-wave impulse noise signals. The underlying theory of continuous wavelet transform was given and the temporal and spectral resolutions were theoretically analyzed. The main results showed that the Mexican hat wavelet demonstrated significant advantages over the Morlet and Meyer wavelets for the characterization and analysis of the A-wave impulse noise. The results of this study provide useful information for applying wavelet transform on signal processing of the A-wave impulse noise.
Passive radar does not have its own emitter. It uses so-called signals of opportunity emitted by non-cooperative illuminators. During the detection of reflected signals, a direct signal from a non-cooperative emitter is used as the reference signal. Detection of electromagnetic echoes is, in present day radars, performed by finding the maximum of the cross ambiguity function. This function is based on the multiplication of the received signal and the reference signal. Detection of echoes by means of a quadrature microwave phase discriminator QMPD was proposed in the work as an alternative solution for ambiguity function evaluation. This discriminator carries out vectorial summing of the received and the reference signals. The summing operations in QMPD are carried out with the aid of microwave elements and without the use of expensive digital signal processors. Definitions of the phase and phase difference of the so-called simple signals and noise signals were described. A proposal of a passive radar equipped with several independent quadrature microwave phase discriminators was presented. Ideas of algorithms of object detection and of the distance-to-object estimation designed for this radar have been also sketched.
In the areas of acoustic research or applications that deal with not-precisely-known or variable conditions, a method of adaptation to the uncertainness or changes is usually necessary. When searching for an adaptation algorithm, it is hard to overlook the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. Its simplicity, speed of computation, and robustness has won it a wide area of applications: from telecommunication, through acoustics and vibration, to seismology. The algorithm, however, still lacks a full theoretical analysis. This is probabely the cause of its main drawback: the need of a careful choice of the step size - which is the reason why so many variable step size flavors of the LMS algorithm has been developed. This paper contributes to both the above mentioned characteristics of the LMS algorithm. First, it shows a derivation of a new necessary condition for the LMS algorithm convergence. The condition, although weak, proved useful in developing a new variable step size LMS algorithm which appeared to be quite different from the algorithms known from the literature. Moreover, the algorithm proved to be effective in both simulations and laboratory experiments, covering two possible applications: adaptive line enhancement and active noise control.
Study of the sea noise has been a subject of interest for many years. The first works in this scope were published at the turn of the twentieth century by Knudsen (Knudsen et al., 1948) and G. Wenz (Wenz, 1962). Disturbances called “shipping noise” are one of the important components of the sea noise. In this work the results of an experimental research of underwater noise produced by a small ship of a classic propulsion are presented. A linear receiving antenna composed of two orthogonal components was used in the investigation. Identification of the main sources of acoustic waves related with the ship was achieved. In addition, the intensity of the wave was measured. The research was performed in conditions of the shallow sea.
The Chinese word identification and sentence intelligibility are evaluated by grades 3 and 5 students in the classrooms with different reverberation times (RTs) from three primary school under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The relationships between subjective word identification and sentence in- telligibility scores and speech transmission index (STI) are analyzed. The results show that both Chinese word identification and sentence intelligibility scores for grades 3 and 5 students in the classroom in- creased with the increase of SNR (and STI), increased with the increase of the age of students, and decreased with the increase of RT. To achieve a 99% sentence intelligibility score, the STIs required for grades 3, grade 5 students, and adults are 0.71, 0.61, and 0.51, respectively. The required objective acoustical index determined by a certain threshold of the word identification test might be underestimated for younger children (grade 3 students) in classroom but overestimated for adults. A method based on the sentence test is more useful for speech intelligibility evaluation in classrooms than that based on the word test for different age groups. Younger children need more favorable classroom acoustical environment with a higher STI than older children and adults to achieve the optimum speech communication in the classroom.
This document analyses qualities of methods used for testing dynamical parameters of Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC) using a multi-frequency signal. As the source for these signals, Amplitude Modulated (AM) and Frequency Modulated (FM) signals are used. These signals are often used in radio engineering. Results of the tests, like Effective Number of Bits (ENOB), Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD), are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are compared with standard results of Sine Wave FFT test methods. The aim of this research is firstly to test whether it is possible to test a DAC using modulated signals, secondly to reduce testing time, while estimating band performance of DAC.
The aim of this work is to present problems related to tinnitus symptoms, its pathogenesis, hypotheses on tinnitus causes, and therapy treatment to reduce or mask the phantom noise. In addition, the hypothesis on the existence of parasitic quantization that accompanies hearing loss has been recalled. Moreover, the paper describes a study carried out by the Authors with the application of high-frequency dither having specially formed spectral characteristics. Discussion on preliminary results obtained and conclusions are also contained.
This paper provides an overview of the effects of timing jitter in audio sampling analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), i.e. PCM (conventional or Nyquist sampling) ADCs and sigma-delta (ΣΔ) ADCs. Jitter in a digital audio is often defined as short-term fluctuations of the sampling instants of a digital signal from their ideal positions in time. The influence of the jitter increases particularly with the improvements in both resolution and sampling rate of today's audio ADCs. At higher frequencies of the input signals the sampling jitter becomes a dominant factor in limiting the ADCs performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range (DR).