Eutectoid growth, as the important reaction mechanism of the carbon steel heat treatment, is the basis to control the microstructure and performance. At present, most studies have focused on lamellar growth, and did not consider the nucleation process. Mainly due to the nucleation theory is inconclusive, a lot of research can support their own theory in a certain range. Based on the existing nucleation theory, this paper proposes a cooperative nucleation model to simulate the nucleation process of eutectoid growth. In order to ensure that the nucleation process is more suitable to the theoretical results, different correction methods were used to amend the model respectively. The results of numerical simulation show that when the model is unmodified, the lateral growth of single phase is faster than that of longitudinal growth, so the morphology is oval. Then, the effects of diffusion correction, mobility correction and ledges nucleation mechanism correction on the morphology of nucleation and the nucleation rate were studied respectively. It was found that the introduction of boundary diffusion and the nucleation mechanism of the ledges could lead to a more realistic pearlite.
This paper presents the results of research focused on the lowering of ash flow temperature at semianthracite coal from Donbas district by means of additive (calcite) dosing. Ash fusion temperatures were set for two coal samples (A, B) and for five various states (samples of ash without any additives, with 1%, with 3%, with 5% and with 7% of the additive) in total. The macroscopicphotographic method was used for identifying all specific temperatures. Obtained outputs prove that A type coal has a lower value of sphere temperature than B type coal in the whole scope of percentage representation of the additive. The flow temperature dropped in total from 1489 °C to 1280 °C, i.e. by 14% during the test of coal of type A with 7% of the additive; while it was near 10% for coal of type B (from 1450 °C to 1308 °C). Numerical simulations of the process showed that it is not effective to add an additive with a grain size lower than 280 μm by means of wastevapour burners.
Widely used CFD codes enable modelling of PC boilers operation. One of the areas where these numerical simulations are especially promising is predicting deposition on heat transfer surfaces, mostly superheaters. The basic goal of all simulations is to determine trajectories of ash particles in the vicinity of superheater tubes. It results in finding where on the surface the tube will be hit by particles, and what diameter and mass flow of the particles are. This paper presents results of CFD simulations for a single tube and a bundle of in-line tubes as well. It has been shown that available parameters like ash particle density, shape factor, reflection coefficients affect the trajectories in a different way. All the simulations were carried out with Fluent code of Ansys software.
Thermo-chemical treatments are known to increase the fatigue life of industrial parts. Due to the imprecise consideration of residual stresses in predicting the durability of components subjected to cyclic loading and their effect on the fatigue life, the authors developed a numerical model combining the influence of residual stresses with stresses caused by bending. The authors performed the numerical simulation with the use of Finite Element Method to analyse material behaviour during cyclic loading. The residual stress state developed during nitriding was introduced onto cross-section of the numerical specimen. The goal of this work was better understanding of the real conditions of the nitride steel fatigue processes and improving the knowledge about numerical predicting of the fatigue life for parts with residual stresses. The results of simulation were compared with plane bending fatigue tests. The presented method indicates the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the fatigue analysis of elements after surface treatment, increasing its certainty and the ability to perform better optimization of service life.
In this paper, the mathematical model and numerical simulations of the molten steel flow by the submerged entry nozzle and the filling process of the continuous casting mould cavity are presented. In the mathematical model, the temperature fields were obtained by solving the energy equation, while the velocity fields were calculated by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation. These equations contain the turbulent viscosity which is found by solving two additional transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation. In the numerical simulations, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena by changes in the thermophysical parameters of alloy depending on the temperature has been taken into consideration. This problem (2D) was solved by using the finite element method. Numerical simulations of filling the continuous casting mould cavity were performed for two variants of liquid metal pouring. The effect of the cases of pouring the continuous casting mould on the velocity fields and the solid phase growth kinetics in the process of filling the continuous casting mould was evaluated as these magnitudes have an influence on the high quality of the continuous cast steel slab.
Lower Carboniferous limestone has been extracted in the “Czatkowice” open-pit hill-slope quarry in southern Poland since 1947, for the needs of metallurgical and building industries, as well as farming. We can distinguish two aquifers in the Czatkowice area: the Quaternary porous aquifer and the Carboniferous fissure-porous one. Two vertical zones representing different hydrodynamic characteristics can be indentified in the Carboniferous formations. One is a weathering zone and the other one the zone of fissures and interbedding planes. Groundwater inflows into the quarry workings have been observed at the lowest mining level (+315 m above the sea level (asl)) for over 30 years. This study concerns two hypotheses of the sources of such inflows originating either from (a) the aeration zone or from (b) the saturation zone. Inflows into the quarry combine into one stream flowing gravitationally to the doline under the pile in the western part of the quarry. This situation does not cause a dewatering need. Extending eastward mining and lowering of the exploitation level lead to increased inflows.
Micro-channel heat sinks are used in a wide variety of applications, including microelectronic devices, computers and high-energy-laser mirrors. Due to the high power density that is encountered in these devices (the density of delivered electrical power up to a few kW/cm2) they require efficient cooling as their temperatures must generally not exceed 100 ◦C. In the paper a new design for micro-channel heat sink (MCHS) to be used for cooling laser diode arrays (LDA) is considered. It is made from copper and consisting of 37 micro-channels with length of 9.78 mm, width of 190 μm and depth of 180 μm with the deionized water as a cooling medium. Mathematical and numerical models of the proposed design of the heat sink were developed. A series of thermofluid numerical simulations were performed for various volumetric flow rates of the cooling medium, its inlet temperature and different thermal power released in the laser diode. The results show that the LDA temperature could be decreased from 14 to 17% in comparison with earlier proposed design of the heat sink with the further drop in temperature obtained by applying indium instead of gallium arsenide as the soldering material between the LDA and MCHS interface. Moreover, it was found that the maximum temperature, and therefore the thermal resistance of the considered heat sink, could be decreased by increasing the coolant flow rate.
Aluminum profiles play an important role in civil engineering (facades, walls with windows) as well as in mechanical engineering (production lines, constructions of 3D printers and plotters). To ensure quick assembly, disassembly or changed the dimensions of constructions it is not possible to use such methods as welding, adhesive or riveting joints. The solution may be to use the so-called “popular lock”. It is a mechanism, the closure of which is caused by tightening of the conical screw, joining the “T” profile in the node. In order to properly design using the presented type of connection, it is necessary to know its strength and stiffness both in simple and complex loads states, also including imperfections. In the literature there is no information about the operation of the construction node with the so-called “popular lock”. The paper presents the results of experimental tests for connections subjected to uniaxial tensile test, paying special attention to the defects that may appear during the assembly. In the next step, a 3D solid connection model was created. Numerical simulations were performed in the Abaqus / Explicite program for both uniaxial tensile test and bending tests in two planes. Limit values of loads above which there is a plastic deformation of the material were determined. Determination of stiffness and strength of a single node allowed to make a simplified connector model. Using the numerical model, the analysis was performed taking into account the influence of imperfections on the work of the entire connection.
This paper deals with real-time (RT) simulators applied in power electronic applications and implemented in a real inverter. The process of preparing and starting up an active rectifier prototype (with an active filter function), using the real-time OPAL RT simulator is given. The control system of the converter and the results of simulation using the Matlab/Simulink suite are discussed.
While modeling water dynamics in dam reservoirs, it is usually assumed that the flow involves the whole water body. It is true for shallow reservoirs (up to several meters of depth) but may be false for deeper ones. The possible presence of a thermocline creates an inactive bottom layer that does not move, causing all the discharge to be carried by the upper strata. This study compares the results of hydrodynamic simulations performed for the whole reservoir to the ones carried out for the upper strata only. The validity of a non-stratified flow approximation is then discussed.
Numerical simulation is an economical and effective method in the field of marine engineering. The dynamics of mooring cables has been analysed by a numerical simulation code that was created on a basis of a new element frame. This paper aims at verifying the accuracy of the numerical simulation code through comparisons with both the real experiments and a commercial simulation code. The real experiments are carried out with a catenary chain mooring in a water tank. The experimental results match the simulation results by the numerical simulation code well. Additionally, a virtual simulation of a large size chain mooring in ocean is carried out by both the numerical simulation code and a commercial simulation code. The simulation results by the numerical simulation code match those by the commercial simulation code well. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical simulation code for underwater chain mooring is verified by both the real experiments and commercial simulation code.
A new concept of an electrostatic spray column for liquid-liquid extraction was investigated. An important problem for separation processes is the presence of azeotropic or close-boiling mixtures in their production, for example heptane with ethanol, since the separation is impossible by ordinary distillation. The use of ionic liquids (IL) as a dispersed solvent specially engineered for any specific organic mixture in terms of selectivity is a key factor to successful separation. As IL present particularly attractive combination of favorable characteristics for the separation of heptane and ethanol, in this work we use 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate [BMIM][MeSO4]. Because of high viscosity and relatively high cost of IL a new technique was introduced, consisting in the electrostatically spray generation to enhance the mass transport between the phases. In order to optimally design the geometry of the contactor a series of numerical simulation was performed. Especially multi-nozzle variants for better exploitation of contactor volume were investigated. Experiments showed excellent possibility of control of the dispersion characteristics by applied voltage and thus control of the rate of extraction. The preliminary simulations based on our mathematical model for a three nozzle variant exhibited visual agreement with the theory of electrostatics.
The aim of the study was the implementation of a numerical simulation of the air-water two-phase flow in the minichannel and comparing results obtained with the values obtained experimentally. To perform the numerical simulations commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 12 was used. The first step of the study was to reproduce the actual research installation as a three-dimensional model with appropriate and possible simplifications - future computational domain. The next step was discretisation of the computational domain and determination of the types of boundary conditions. ANSYS FLUENT 12 has three built-in basic models with which a two-phase flow can be described. However, in this work Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) model was selected as it meets the established requirements of research. Preliminary calculations were performed for a simplified geometry. The calculations were later verified whether or not the simplifications of geometry were chosen correctly and if they affected the calculation. The next stage was validation of the chosen model. After positive verification, a series of calculations was performed, in which the boundary conditions were the same as the starting conditions in laboratory experiments. A satisfactory description of the experimental data accuracy was attained.
Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.
In order to predict the distribution of shrinkage porosity in steel ingot efficiently and accurately, a criterion R√L and a method to obtain its threshold value were proposed. The criterion R√L was derived based on the solidification characteristics of steel ingot and pressure gradient in the mushy zone, in which the physical properties, the thermal parameters, the structure of the mushy zone and the secondary dendrite arm spacing were all taken into consideration. The threshold value of the criterion R√L was obtained with combination of numerical simulation of ingot solidification and total solidification shrinkage rate. Prediction of the shrinkage porosity in a 5.5 ton ingot of 2Cr13 steel with criterion R√L>0.21 m･℃1/2･s -3/2 agreed well with the results of experimental sectioning. Based on this criterion, optimization of the ingot was carried out by decreasing the height-to-diameter ratio and increasing the taper, which successfully eliminated the centreline porosity and further proved the applicability of this criterion.
The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids. Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the influence of thermo-physical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.
To solve the problem of large deformation soft rock roadway with complicated stress condition in Baluba copper mine, the characteristics of roadway deformation and failure modes are analyzed deeply on the basis of geological survey. Combined with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the new reinforcement technology with floor mudsill and grouting anchor cable is proposed. Moreover, the three dimension numerical simulation model is established by the software FLAC-3D, the support parameter is optimized by it. The results show that the optical array pitch of the U-steel shelf arch is 0.8 m, and the optical array pitch of the grouting anchor cable is 2.4 m. At last, the field experiments are done all over the soft rock roadway. Engineering practice shows that the deformation of soft rock roadway in Baluba copper mine is effectively controlled by adopting the new reinforcement technology, which can provide certain references for similar engineering.
In order to optimize the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions, a novel method for the optimization of stope structure parameters is described. The method is based on the field investigation, laboratory tests and numerical simulation. The grey relational analysis (GRA) is applied to the optimization of the stope structure parameters in broken rock conditions with multiple performance characteristics. The influencing factors include stope height, pillar diameter, pillar spacing and pillar array pitch, the performance characteristics include maximum tensile strength, maximum compressive strength and ore recovery rate. The setting of influencing factors is accomplished using the four factors four levels Taguchi experiment design method, and 16 experiments are done by numerical simulation. Analysis of the grey relational grade indicates the first effect value of 0.219 is the pillar array pitch. In addition, the optimal stope structure parameters are as follows: the height of the stope is 3.5 m, the pillar diameter is 3.5 m, the pillar spacing is 3 m and the pillar array pitch is 5 m. In-situ measurement shows that all of the pillars can basically remain stable, ore recovery rate can be ensured to be more than 82%. This study indicates that the GRA method can efficiently applied to the optimization of stope structure parameters.
In the process of coal extraction, a fractured zone is developed in the overburden above the goaf. If the fractured zone is connected with an aquifer, then water inrush may occur. Hence, research and analysis of the height of overburden fractured zone (HOFZ) are of considerable significance. This study focuses on the HOFZ determination in deep coal mining. First, general deformation failure characteristics of overburden were discussed. Second, a new method, numerical simulation by orthogonal design(NSOD), have been proposed to determinate the HOFZ in deep coal mining. Third, the validity of NSOD is verified in the practical application, compared with empiric al formula in Chinese Regulations and in-situ test. These three methods were applied to determine the HOFZ of working face No. 111303 in No. 5 coal mine. The pre dicted HOFZ of NSOD is found to be similar to the result of the in-situ test (8.9% relative error), whereas the HOFZ calculated by the empirical formula has extremely large error (25.7% relative error). Results show that the NSOD can reliably predict the HOFZ in deep coal mining and reduce time and expenses required for in-situ test.
The analysis of influence of mould withdrawal rate on the solidification process of CMSX-4 single crystal castings produced by Bridgman method was presented in this paper. The predicted values of temperature gradient, solidification and cooling rate, were determined at the longitudinal section of casting blade withdrawn at rate from 1 to 6mm/min using ProCAST software. It was found that the increase of withdrawal rate of ceramic mould results in the decrease of temperature gradient and the growth of cooling rate, along blade height. Based on results of solidification parameter G/R (temperature gradient/solidification rate), maximum withdrawal rate of ceramic mould (3.5 mm/min), which ensures lower susceptibility to formation process of new grain defects in single crystal, was established. It was proved that these defects can be formed in the bottom part of casting at withdrawal rate of 4 mm/min. The increase of withdrawal rate to 5 and 6 mm/min results in additional growth of susceptibility of defects formation along the whole height of airfoil.