Research on the chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in the Hornsund region of Svalbard has been extended by analysis of the organic contents. In rainfall samples collected in September 2003, the organics were separated by solid phase extraction (SPE), eluted and analysed on gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector (GC/MS). Rainfall pH was in the range 4.72–5.45, the low values suggesting possible pollution. Concentrations of inorganic ions, expressed as total dissolved salts (TDS), were 5.40–13.18 mg L–1. Non-sea-salt (nss) sulphates were in the range 5–11 μeq L–1. In all samples, long-chain alkanes with chain length up to C36, and their methyl derivatives were detected. Among aromatic compounds biphenyl, dibenzofuran and its methyl derivatives were found. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were represented by naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene and pyrene. There were no PAHs with higher numbers of rings. The synoptic meteorological conditions in September 2003 indicate that all organic and inorganic pollutants were of local origin.
Recent studies in the area of biological air treatment in filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as a biofilter bed of different origin composed of natural zeolite granules, foam cubes and wood chips. When foam and zeolite are mixed with wood chips to remove volatile organic compounds from the air, not only biological but also adsorption air purification methods are accomplished. The use of complex purification technologies helps to improve the efficiency of a filter as well as the bed service life of the filter bed. Investigations revealed that microorganisms prevailing in biological purification, can also reproduce themselves in biofilter beds of inorganic and synthetic origin composed of natural zeolite and foam. By cultivating associations of spontaneous microorganisms in the filter bed the dependencies of the purification efficiency of filter on the origin, concentration and filtration time of injected pollutants were determined. The highest purification efficiency was obtained when air polluted with acetone vapour was supplied to the equipment at 0.1 m/s of superficial gas velocity. When cleaning air from volatile organic compounds (acetone, toluene and butanol), under the initial pollutant concentration of ~100 mg/m3, the filter efficiency reached 95 %.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the temperature of wastewater in a biological reactor with activated sludge and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio in the inﬂuent to the treatment plant on nitriﬁcation efﬁciency and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater. Tests were carried out in a household wastewater treatment plant which collects and treats sewage from a school building and a teacher’s house. During the 3-year study, large ﬂuctuations in the sewage temperature in bioreactor were noted which was closely related to the ambient temperature. There were also large ﬂuctuations in the concentration of organic matter and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in inﬂowing sewage. The inﬂuence of wastewater temperature in the bioreactor and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio on the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater was determined using Pearson’s linear correlation. A statistical analysis showed that a 1°C decrease in the temperature of wastewater in the bioreactor increased the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater by 2.64 mgN-NH4·L-1. Moreover, it was found that nitriﬁcation depended on the ratio of BOD5 to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in wastewater ﬂowing into the bioreactor. An increase in the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio by 1 value led to a 5.41 mgN-NH4·L-1 decrease in the concentration of ammonium nitrogen.