Parental participation in co-management of state school becomes a key issue for democratization of public life in poland and for the quality and effectiveness of civic education of the young. The system of education needs social control, first of all of those whose children are subjected to school duty. “Such will the Republics of poland be as their youth is educated” is the thesis forming the foundations of the school system in the 3rd Republic of Poland. In compliance with the postulates and ethics of Solidarity, the system was supposed to be self-governing. What is analyzed in this study is the relation between politics and school education in the normative-empirical dimension. The (so far unpublished) research results of the author's own studies on democratization of state education are popularized here. This is done, after the dispute on some studies diagnosing the nationwide lack of socialization, in order to indicate subsequent aspects of fiction and appearances of the central authority, the rule of safe position employment, common paralysis of parental care, as well as natural expectations and aspirations which should be fulfilled by the subjects running state schools.
Self-fulfilling prophecy is seen as an important phenomenon linking social perception with social interaction, being in line with the assumption that conviction creates reality. The adoption of such a perspective upgrades the rank of expectations, which being in control of human behaviour, permeate all areas of people’s activity. Within the area of interpersonal interaction, its participants either perceive what is expected of them or make assumptions about expectations on the basis of behaviour which is directed towards them. Following this lead, and referring to the possibility of co-operation between teachers and parents, we are confronted with a question whether within the anticipated interaction parents may cope as well, or as badly as it is expected of them by teachers. This article attempts to answer this question as well as to analyse the relationships between teachers and parents through the prism of the idea of self-fulfilling prophecy, bearing in mind that the phenomenon itself consists of extremely complex interaction of cognitive and behavioural factors.
Jotunites (hypersthene monzodiorites/ferromonzodiorites) are rocks coeval with plutonic AMCG (anorthosite– mangerite–charnockite–rapakivi granite) suites, which are characteristic of the Proterozoic Eon. It has been experimentally shown that jotunite magma can be recognised as parental to anorthosites and related rocks: since then, research on these rocks has taken on a particular importance. Jotunites were recently described within the deeply buried c. 1.5 Ga Suwałki and Sejny anorthosite massifs in the crystalline basement of NE Poland. The major and trace element compositions of Polish jotunites show them to have a calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and ferroan character, with a relatively wide range of SiO2 content (40.56 wt. % up to 47.46 wt. %) and high concentrations of Fe (up to 22.63 wt. % Fe2O3), Ti (up to 4.34 wt. % TiO2) and P (up to 1.46 wt. % P2O5). Slight differences in textural features, mineralogical compositions, and geochemistry of whole-rock jotunite samples from distinct massifs allow us to distinguish two kinds: a primitive one, present in the Sejny Intrusion, and a more evolved one, related to the Suwałki Massif.
In education, information and Communications Technologies mostly play the role of a medium of communication, as well as a means of imparting knowledge. ICT, however, is used less as a subject for student activity, i.e. a subject for students to learn, where they can operate the technology, as in robotics or mechantronics. Information technologies are also very rarely implemented in education as a way for students to build their identity and shape their attitudes towards their outside and inside worlds. In spite of this, in the history of educational technology there have been a number of researchers and educators who have promoted interesting ideas for implementing technologies as tools for human cognitive, affective, psychomotor and moral empowerment. Today such people are also present in education, however, they play unimportant roles on the periphery of formal education. This paper is a reminder of a number of ideas by theorists and researchers concerning the implementation of ICT, but mainly highlights the empowerment it gives students and its humanizing/humanitarian role.