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Abstract

The aim of the research was an examination of potential impact of milk yield on the intercompartmental clearance – distribution clearance as well as determination of the variability of obtained pharmacokinetic parameters by the population approach using a two-compartmental structural model. Blood perfusion has a considerable impact on physiology of the udder and kinetics of drugs that are distributed in this organ. The research was performed on healthy Holstein- Friesian and Polish Black-White cows at the age of 4-10 years. Determination of antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefoperazone, penicillin G prokaine, cloxacillin, cefacetril) concentration was carried out after their every intramammary administration to one quarter of the udder. A population pharmacokinetic model was created to fit milk concentration data. General milk yield of a single cow was used as a variable. A population analysis was conducted using non-linear mixed-effect modeling. The impact of milk productivity was set solely by reference to intercompartmental clearance only in case of penicillin G, cloxacillin and ampicillin. It, has been found that milk yield, depending on a drug, influenced the distribution clearance of the drug to varying degrees. It means indirectly that increased perfusion of the udder has a different impact on drug distribution from the udder to the bloodstream.
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Abstract

In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
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Abstract

Ibudilast (AV-411) is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). It is currently marketed for human use in Asian countries for the treatment of asthma, cerebrovascular disorders and ocular allergies. Ibudilast has also been found to have an analgesic action for neuropathic pain at doses 5-10 times higher than those used in asthma therapy. Six healthy Labrador dogs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups using an open, single-dose, two-treatment, two-phase, cross-over design (2x2 Latin-square). Dogs in group 1 (n=3) were fasted for at least 10 hours overnight before the beginning of the experiment and 4 h following dosing while dogs in group 2 (n=3) received food ad libitum. During the first phase, each dog in group 1 and 2 received a single dose of 5 mg/kg ibudilast administered orally. After 1-week washout period the groups were rotated and the experiment was repeated. The analytical method, validated for dog plasma, was shown to be linear in the range 0.10–20 μg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively. No behavioural or health alterations were observed in the animals during or after the study. Ibudilast was detectable in plasma for up to 24 h showing a wide variability between animals. Although no statistically significant differences were observed in the present study between the fed and fasted states, examination of the raw data suggests that an effect may be present. The wide degree of variation observed in area under the curve (AUC) suggests that the investigation of population pharmacokinetic modelling is warranted.
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