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Abstract

The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.The aim of our research was to connect the detailed study of fruit anatomy of black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) with identification and detection of the main non-anthocyanin polyphenolic compounds. Our experimental results showed that the highest accumulation of anthocyanin bodies occurred in mature fruits in outer layers during fruit development. The shape of the anthocyanin bodies was most often globular, spherical, hemispherical and intermediate types were present only occasionally. Mature cells of the gynoecium and pericarp generally contain anthocyanin bodies incorporated inside vacuoles. The observed compounds accumulated in cells were rutin, quercetin and catechins, resveratrol; coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids, gallic, vanilic, syringic, cinnamic and caffeic acids. These compounds were selected because of their proposed positive effects on health. The analyses of the polyphenolic spectrum showed predominance of ferrulic acid together with gallic acid and catechins with quercetin.
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Abstract

Polyphenol oxidase partial gene PG-PPO was cloned and characterized from Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) which showed 42% identity to a PPO sequence isolated from wheat at the region of Copper B with a score of 40 and e-value of 2.8. Multiple sequence alignment results revealed similarity to polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sequences from wheat, trifolium, lettuce, apricot, tobacco, tomato, pokeweed, apple, grape and poplar especially at the Copper B region of PPO. The 395 bp pearl millet PPO sequence was AT rich (53.3%) and contained the highly conserved amino acids of histidine-rich copper binding sites similar to PPO sequences from other crops. Results also indicated that PPO in pearl millet exists in multi copy. The role of the isolated PPO gene during pearl millet-downy mildew interaction was analyzed and the results showed significantly higher and rapid accumulation of PPO mRNAs in resistant pearl millet seedlings inoculated with Sclerospora graminicola in comparison to the susceptible control, demonstrating that the PPO plays a prominent role in pearl millet defense against pathogens, particularly downy mildew pathogen.
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