Zespół pałacowo-parkowy Radziwiłłów w Białej Podlaskiej stanowi jedną z najwybitniejszych realizacji architektonicznych XVII wieku powstałych na terenie Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego. Mimo iż do czasów obecnych nie zachowała się bryła pałacu (został rozebrany w 1883 r.), to pozostałe obiekty architektoniczne – trzy oficyny ujmujące jeden z największych dziedzińców pałacowych Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów, kaplica pałacowa, wieża, brama wjazdowa oraz otaczające cały zespół ziemne obwałowania obronne systemu staroholenderskiego stanowią nadal niezwykle cenny obiekt ściśle powiązany ze strukturą przestrzenną miasta oraz jego historią. Na podstawie przeglądu literatury przedmiotu i analiz informacji pochodzących ze źródeł archiwalnych – zarówno opisowych, ikonografi cznych i kartografi cznych, uwzględniając także opracowane w 2. połowie XX wieku koncepcje i projekty rewaloryzacji – podjęto próbę przedstawienia kolejnych faz rozwoju i przemian tego zabytkowego zespołu w kolejnych okresach jego istnienia. Pozwoliło to na ocenę stanu jego przetrwania. Przeprowadzona analiza historyczna stanowi podstawę do wskazania kierunków dalszych działań służących wydobyciu i zachowaniu wartości tego unikalnego kompleksu.
In view of the world’s recent changes in the mineral market, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure the sustainable and secure supply of raw materials, both within the European Union and in other high-developed countries. In response to this global challenge, as part of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Program for Research & Innovation, the 36-month INTRAW project was launched in February 2015 to foster international cooperation on raw materials. The EU-funded INTRAW project was set up to map and develop new cooperation opportunities related to raw materials between the EU and other technologically advanced countries, such as: Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States. The first stage of the project was a review of conditions for the stable supply of raw materials from primary and secondary sources in selected countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and Japan. The results of the work are two groups of comprehensive reports. The first of these is a broad contextual analysis of geological, environmental, political, technical -economic and social factors conducive to the effective management of mineral resources. The second group is operational reports, carried out in three thematic blocks: industry and trade, research and innovation, education. The analysis clearly shows that the basis for effective action in this area is a stable political, economic and institutional environment, which is friendly to mining and new entities wishing to invest in modern technologies, the exploration and exploitation of deposits. Investors are encouraged by tax regulations, sometimes also by direct government financial support and efficient licensing procedures. The well-defined protection of property rights, also for deposits is equally important. Selected aspects of a wide analysis of determinants of competitiveness for these countries were presented in the article below.
The article raises the issue of zoning of the central area of Zamosc based on downtown unrealized projects. It also explains the genesis of the formation of its range and the spatial layout, which affected the functioning of nineteenth-century fortress. As early as 1804. Entailer Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski planned to demolish the decaying fortifications and sell strip of land fortress for development. Change the situation on the political arena of Europe made Zamosc under Tsarist Russia became a fortress – a closed town, where civilian activity have been pushed to the back burner and separated from the historical center of strategic cordoned off the circuit. It was not until 24 years after the dissolution of the fortress, in 1880. returned to the development concept of post-fortress area in connection with the planned development of the city, but this met with opposition the military commission – the owner of the land. After regaining independence, the magistrate put forward ambitious building projects realization in the esplanade of the formerly fortress, which this time met with the resistance of the military commissions. As a result of the conversion of disputed land in the late 30’s the post-fortress area was possible to invest. An example was enacted in 1939, pioneering in many respects, zoning plan Zamosc by Władyslaw Wieczorkiewicza and Jan Zachwatowicz in which the authors called for implementation of the downtown on the basis of a linear array of bifocal between the old town (Stare Miasto) and the Nowa Osada suburb.
The article presents reflections on the intergenerational educational-research project entitled “Restoring the Memory of the City”. This project was carried out by the University of the Third Age in Toruń in partnership with the Faculty of Education of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń within the “Patriotism of Tomorrow” framework announced by the Polish History Museum and financed by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. This project was based on Pierre Nora’s concept of memorial sites and modern vision of patriotism. In didactic and methodological layer it was embedded within the framework of action research, thereby allowing to combine historical contents with pedagogical method of their modern transfer. The text shows the objectives and results of the project. Also, it describes its course and activities undertaken throughout its duration. Presenting the results of this project focused on the multidimensionality of related with them intergenerational process of learning
The article is an attempt to outline the theoretical and methodological reflection on public history in the context of some conceptual models and concrete examples of case studies. Considering discursive situations, suppositions, suggestions and interpellations on the enlightenment postulate with regard to public history (including the issues: magistra vitae, emancipatory project, affirmative history, emotive revolution, critical discourse in the public space, modus art based research) I deal with the issues: what is actually the content of public history: history or memory? Does the enlightenment postulate with regard to public history turn memory into history? Are we dealing with some project concocted by the intelligentsia and scientific elite? What are the current trends in the implementation of critical discourse in public history?
The chuch dedicated to The Holy Spirit, erected in Wrocław, in housing estate Huby, was created during the communist period, hence it was very difficult to design it, and to build. But it was also the period close to the collapse of this regime, so communist leaders were pressed to be more tolerant towards human rights than before, including the religious freedom and towards building new churches. The author of the church mentioned – a very active political oppositionist – when designing the strongly innovative church building, was simultaneously forced by fate to fight formal difficulties caused by oppressive rulers. Author makes the reader closer to those complicated double troubles: artistic, parallel to the political. Finally, the church building was happily completed, then became widely popular and accepted.
The extraction of mineral deposits is usually charged with additional taxes or royalty fees that go beyond the general income tax. As a rule, countries prefer stable sources of fiscal revenues based on the volume of raw material extraction, and investors prefer models based on profit tax, i.e. taking operating costs and risks lower than the expected profitability of the project into account. As a rule, too high a burden for the mining sector affects investors’ decisions regarding the introduction of new investments. There are a number of examples where excessive fiscal burdens force investors to move to countries with more favorable tax systems. An analysis of various forms of taxation of mining enterprises around the world has been presented and compared with the system implemented in Poland. Usually, the countries that apply the royalty fee in the mining sector at the same time introduce a number of adaptation mechanisms. This is crucial for new investments due to the fact that they may to some extent compensate for the high costs of transition from the investment to the operational phase. In most cases, several incentive mechanisms are used at the same time, e.g. the accelerated settlement of investment expenditures and the unlimited settlement of losses. The copper and silver mining tax introduced in Poland increased the discounted effective tax rate (ETR) from 38.5% to 89% for the entire investment period, which resulted in a 11-year return on investment, as well as a drop in the internal rate of return (IRR).There are currently no mechanisms in Poland which would balance the burden of this tax for a new investor. In order to balance the extraction tax for certain minerals in terms of the IRR and ETR key indicators, the introduction of several adaptation mechanisms has been proposed. For new investments the most essential mechanism is the preferential settlement of capital expenditures incurred in the pre-production phase of an investment. The others include accelerated amortization, the ability to deduct certain expenses for the exploration phase from the tax base, along with an extended tax loss settlement period, or a mechanism for deducting a certain percentage of investment expenses directly from the tax.