Balance, thermodynamic and mainly kinetic approaches using methods of process engineering enable to determine conditions under which iron technology can actually work in limiting technological states, at the lowest reachable fuel consumption (reducing factor) and the highest reachable productivity accordingly. Kinetic simulation can be also used for variant prognostic calculations. The paper deals with thermodynamics and kinetics of iron making process. It presents a kinetic model of iron oxide reduction in a low temperature area. In the experimental part it deals with testing of iron ore feedstock properties. The theoretical and practical limits determined by heat conditions, feedstock reducibility and kinetics of processes are calculated.
Presented article contain the teachers opinions of the perceived social expectations in relation to their own expectations of both the institutions of school and local educational authorities. The starting point is a thesis that asymmetrical and disproportionate expectations conducive to the construction of the reduced school reality a specified group of students. as reality shows school does not always reflect the social expectations, which is closely connected with the attitudes of teachers in mainstream schools. however, their expectations of working conditions and the same students with disabilities often remain inconsistent. To identify and interpret the reality that create the appearance of the school, the topic is examined in the context of the concept of the reduced space and the theory of games.
Recently, some major changes have occurred in the structure of the European foundry industry, such as a rapid development in the production of castings from compacted graphite iron and light alloys at the expense of limiting the production of steel castings. This created a significant gap in the production of heavy steel castings (exceeding the weight of 30 Mg) for the metallurgical, cement and energy industries. The problem is proper moulding technology for such heavy castings, whose solidification and cooling time may take even several days, exposing the moulding material to a long-term thermal and mechanical load. Owing to their technological properties, sands with organic binders (synthetic resins) are the compositions used most often in industrial practice. Their main advantages include high strength, good collapsibility and knocking out properties, as well as easy mechanical reclamation. The main disadvantage of these sands is their harmful effect on the environment, manifesting itself at various stages of the casting process, especially during mould pouring. This is why new solutions are sought for sands based on organic binders to ensure their high technological properties but at the same time less harmfulness for the environment. This paper discusses the possibility of reducing the harmful effect of sands with furfuryl binders owing to the use of resins with reduced content of free furfuryl alcohol and hardeners with reduced sulphur content. The use of alkyd binder as an alternative to furfuryl binder has also been proposed and possible application of phenol-formaldehyde resins was considered.