Theoretical and experimental research indicates that radial loads have a significant influence on the value of belt-on-idler rolling resistances. Computational models discussed in literature use the notion of unit rolling resistance, i.e. rolling resistance per unit length of the idler. The total value of the rolling resistance of belt on a single idler is determined by integrating unit rolling resistance with respect to the length of the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This procedure requires the knowledge of normal load distribution along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. Loads acting on the idler set have been the object of both theoretical analyses and laboratory tests. Literature mentions several models which describe the distribution of normal loads along the contact zone between the belt and the idler set (Krause & Hettler, 1974; Lodewijks, 1996; Gładysiewicz, 2003; Jennings, 2014). Numerous experimental tests (Gładysiewicz & Kisielewski, 2017; Król, 2017; Król & Zombroń, 2012) demonstrated that the resultant normal loads acting on idlers are approximate to the loads calculated in theoretical models. If the resultant normal load is known, it is possible to assume the distribution of loads acting along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This paper analyzes various hypothetical load distributions calculated for both the center idler roll and for the side idler roll. It also presents the results of calculations of belt rolling resistances for the analyzed distributions. In addition, it presents the results of calculations with allowance for load distribution along the generating line of the idler.
Determining the boundary conditions of heat transfer in steel manufacturing is a very important issue. The heat transfer effect during contact of two solid bodies occurs in the continuous casting steel process. The temperature fields of solids taking part in heat transfer are described by the Fourier equation. The boundary conditions of heat transfer must be determined to get an accurate solution to the heat conduction equation. The heat flux between the tool and the object processed depends mainly on temperature, pressure and time. It is very difficult and complicated to accomplish direct identification and determination of the boundary conditions in this process. The solution to this problem may be the construction of a process model, performing measurements at a test stand, and using numerical methods. The proposed model must be verified on the basis of parameters which can easily be measured in industrial processes. One of them is temperature, which may be used in inverse methods to determine the heat transfer coefficient. This work presents the methodology for determining the heat flux between two solid bodies staying in contact. It consists of two stages – the experiment and the numerical computation. The problem was solved by using the finite element method (FEM) and a numerical program developed at AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The findings of the conducted research are relationships describing the value of the heat flux versus the contact time and surface temperature.
The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.
An intentional change in material properties is an important condition for castings production. It is one way how to meet the casting requirements of how to adapt the material properties to the operating conditions. Centrifugally cast rolls are multi-layer rollers, castings. The working layer of the barrel is called the "shell" and the body of the roll and the necks rolls are called "core". The article deals with the influence of the properties of the core iron. Earlier laboratory experiments were primary analysed for metallographic analysis and mechanical properties. These data were compared back to the experiments. The results of these laboratory working were later applied in the operating conditions of the roll foundry Vítkovitcké slévárny, spol. s r.o. The spun cast roll produced with the applied metallurgical processing change was supplied to the hot strip mill. There were monitored the positive effect of the change of the metallurgical process of the production of the core iron on the useful properties of the centrifugally cast roll. The experiment was done in order to increase the mechanical properties of ductile pearlite ductile iron. The copper in these core iron material increases the hardness and strength primarily.
Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron is today quite mastered technology. There are many methods achieving the nodular graphite morphology. Each of these methods have specific characteristics and requirements to technical support, properties and the type of applied modifier. Selection of the spheroidization method is dependent on foundry disposition, production character, economic balance, quality requirements, etc. In case of centrifugally casting the core, which fills body and neck of the roll, is created by ductile iron. Considering the sophisticated production of centrifugally cast rolls for hot rolling mills it is necessary to ensure a high reproducibility and reliability of ductile cast iron production quality in the bulk range of 9-18 t per tapping. These conditions are in the Roll Foundry in Vítkovicke Slevarny, spol. s r.o. provided and verified mastered overpour method and the newly injection of cored wire in the melt.