Work in unfavorable, changing environmental conditions negatively affects people working on scaffoldings used on construction sites, which may increase the risk of occurrence of dangerous situations. The purpose of this article is to show the scale of temperature changes which workers are exposed to. The paper compares examples of temperature measurements obtained from a metrological station and during tests on scaffoldings located in the Lodz and Warsaw regions. This article also presents the methodology of examining environmental parameters of the surroundings where employees work on scaffoldings. Analysis results show that high temperatures and significant temperature variations frequently occur on the scaffoldings, which leads to a lack of adaptability and consequently to tiredness or decreased alertness. Unfavorable environmental conditions can lead to behaviors which, in turn, can cause accidents.
This paper concerns an approach to model the ledger-stand joints of modular scaffolds. Based on the analysis of the working range of the ledger (represented by a linear relationship between load and displacement), two models of the ledger-stand joint are analysed: first – with flexibility joints and second – with rigid joints and with a transition part of lower stiffness. Parameters are selected based on displacement measurements and numerical analyses of joints, then they are verified. On the basis of performed research, it can be stated that both methods of joint modelling recommended in this paper, can be applied in engineering practices.
The article analyses the issue of the potential development of theoretical thinking in young children. The context for this discussion is found in the cultural and historical development theory of L.S. Vygotsky which constitutes the basis for assumptions regarding the thinking about development and education of children. It highlights the elementary education stage as a very important area of designing „developmental teaching” as understood by Vygotsky. The article emphasizes the role of an adult who builds the scaffolding for the child’s thinking and acting, and establishes the conditions and teaching environment necessary for the performance of a cognitive process directed at the development of theoretical thinking. In the author’s opinion building the foundation for theoretical thinking will be possible when teachers set „the right developmental and educational tasks” for a child who is constructing knowledge.