The paper presents the problem of intelligent installations in buildings, their construction and integration with other systems present in the building. Attention has been focused on systems designed to ensure the safety of property and persons residing in different facilities. It also discusses ways to control the microclimate and other aspects of the building so as to obtain the maximum comfort of the people placed in them. Considering its high popularity, the smart installation based on the KNX/EIB standard is further discussed, examples of algorithms for dealing with security threats are given as well as the functions indicated which can improve the comfort of using a facility.
This paper describes a design process of HALE PW-114 sensor-craft, developed for high altitude (20 km) long endurance (40 h) surveillance missions. Designed as a blended wing (BW) conﬁguration, to be made of metal and composite materials. Wing control surfaces provide longitudinal balance. Fin in the rear fuselage section together with wingtips provide directional stability. Airplane is equipped with retractable landing gear with controlled front leg that allows operations from conventional airﬁelds. According to the initial requirements it is twin engine conﬁguration, typical payload consists of electro-optical/infra-red FLIR, big SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and SATCOM antenna required for the longest range. Tailless architecture was based on both Horten and Northrop design experience. Global Hawk was considered as a reference point – it was assumed that BW design has to possess eﬃciency, relative payload and other characteristics at least the same or even better than that of Global Hawk. FLIR, SAR and SATCOM containers were optimised for best visibility. All payload systems are put into separate modular containers of easy access and quickly to exchange, so this architecture can be consider as a „modular”. An optimisation process started immediately when the so-called “zero conﬁguration”, called PW-111 was ready. It was designed in the canard conﬁguration. A canard was abandoned in HALE PW-113. Instead, new, larger outer wing was designed with smaller taper ratio. New conﬁguration analysis revealed satisfactory longitudinal stability. Calculations suggested better lateral qualities for negative dihedral. These modiﬁcations, leading to aerodynamic improvement, gave HALE PW-114 as a result. The design process was an interdisciplinary approach, and included a selection of thick laminar wing section, aerodynamic optimisation of swept wing, stability analysis, weight balance, structural and ﬂutter analysis, many on-board redundant systems, reliability and maintability analysis, safety improvement, cost and performance optimisation. Presented paper focuses mainly on aerodynamics, wing design, longitudinal control and safety issues. This activity is supported by European Union within V FR, in the area Aeronautics and Space.
The efficient protection (support reinforcement) of a wall and heading crossing ensures continuity of the production cycle, and that is a quick moving of the scraper conveyor to the wall. Using low or high bolting as a support reinforcement element in wall and heading crossings allows for the elimination of traditional methods of maintaining longwall-gate crossings, and therefore allows for the efficient use high performance modern wall complexes. The paper presents the long underground experience, of the Knurów–Szczygłowice mine of efficient support wall and heading crossing maintenance, which was bolted to the rock mass with the usage of two pairs of bolts, showing full technical and economical usefulness of this support reinforcement method. The article also highlights work safety and the increasingly common usage of endoscopies when specifying the range of crack areas which directly effects the proper choice in number, load-capacity and length of the used bolts. The underground studies the measurements of the reach of the zones of fracturing and roof stratification (using endoscopes and wire type stratification meters) and the laboratory tests (using the test stand) have allowed to determine the safety factor for maintenance of the longwall gangway crossing, directly resulting in the necessity to install additional reinforcement. The value of the safety factor Sbsc-ch greater than 1 is advantageous and safe, and the value less than or equal to 1 can lead to a significant deterioration of the conditions of maintenance of a wall and heading crossing which was bolted.
Economic development is strictly dependent on access to inexpensive and reliable energy sources based on diversified primary fuels. The strategic framework for the construction of the energy mix is defined in the Energy Policy of the State, the content of which, in terms of its mandatory elements, has been specified in the Energy Law. The task of the Energy Policy of the State is to create the shape of the future power sector, including designing the most advantageous regulatory, system and technical solutions guaranteeing the appropriate level of energy security of the country, monitoring of the system’s evolution and also designing and implementing changes aimed at the optimization of the functioning mechanisms. The vision of the development of the power system at the global level should also reflect changes in the formation of dispersed civil energy structures. Unfortunately, the results of the conducted analyses reveal existing imperfections of the data acquisition and information system, which should be used in the planning process. This issue is particularly important from the perspective of the dynamically developing concept of the energy self-sufficiency of communes and the emergence of energy clusters. The present paper describes the functioning of strategic planning in the field of the electric power system with an illustration of the improperly functioning mechanisms of information transfer in the context of the advancement of dispersed civil energy structures.
In order to improve the efficiency and ensure the security of power supply used in a mine, this paper mainly studies the quasi-resonant flyback secondary power supply and analyzes its operational principles based on the requirements of soft-switching technology. In accordance with the maximum energy of a short-circuit and the request of maximum output voltage ripple, this paper calculates the spectrum value of the output filter capacitor and provides its design and procedures to determine the parameters of the main circuit of power supply. The correctness and availability of this theory are eventually validated by experiments.
The paper presents a method for wireless measurement of car wheel air pressure and temperature using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System, or TPMS module - one of the latest safety systems introduced by the automotive industry - with readings taken on a specifically designed test bench. The paper describes the structure and operating principle of the test bench key elements and how they work with the sensors, the TPMS module, and reference instruments, as well as the data format and accuracy of data transmission between TPMS and the host computer. The software designed for an embedded system emulating the real on-board computer allows for observing raw sensor readings and the effect of calibration in two points of the characteristics.
The paper looks at the issues of operation safety of the national power grid and the characteristics of the national power grid in the areas of transmission and distribution. The issues of operation safety of the national transmission and distribution grid were discussed as well as threats to operation safety and security of the electricity supply related to these grids. Failures in the transmission and distribution grid in 2017, caused by extreme weather conditions such as: a violent storm at the night of 11/12.08.2017, hurricane Ksawery on 5–8.10.2017, and hurricane Grzegorz on 29–30.10.2017, the effects of which affected tens of thousands of electricity consumers and led to significant interruptions in the supply of electricity were presented. At present, the national power (transmission and distribution) grid does not pose a threat to the operation safety and security of the electricity supply, and is adapted to the current typical conditions of electricity demand and the performance of tasks during a normal state of affairs, but locally may pose threats, especially in extreme weather conditions. A potentially high threat to the operation safety of the national power grid is closely linked to: age, technical condition and the degree of depletion of the transmission and distribution grids, and their high failure rate due to weather anomalies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and modernize the 400 and 220 kV transmission grids, cross-border interconnections, and the 110 kV distribution grid (especially in the area of large urban agglomerations), and the MV distribution grid (especially in rural areas). The challenges faced by the transmission and distribution grid operators within the scope of investment and operating activities, with a view to avoiding or at least reducing the scale of grid failures in the case of future sudden high-intensity atmospheric phenomena, are presented.
The article presents the results of tests on SHC-40 hydraulic props equipped with two types of valve blocks: standard (with spring steel cylinder) and BZG-2FS (with gas spring). The research was conducted using impact mass of 4,000 kg and with extreme dynamic load of free fall impact mass of 20,000 kg released from different heights h. The dynamic tests involved a camera with the speed of image capture up to 1,200 frames/sec, which made it possible to register the stream of liquid at the dynamic load and to determine the valve opening time. The study conducted on SHC-40 NHR10 props equipped with two types of valve blocks: a standard and the BZG-2FS fast acting relief, showed that the prop with the BZG-2FS block is more suitable and more effective in the case of areas with high risk of mining tremors and rapid stress relief of a seam. Research methodology developed in the Central Mining Institute combines digital recording technique of pressure in a prop and fast registration of the images, and allows to acquire more accurate analysis of dynamic phenomena in the prop during testing.
The main goal of this work is to show the new approach to determining safety technological levels (SLs) in terms of water quality and its chemical stability, as well as issues of water corrosion properties in water distribution systems (WDSs), due to the fact that water supply pipes are prone to corrosion. In the paper the methodology of determining the risk associated with threat to technical infrastructure was considered. The concept was studied on the basis of real operational data from the water treatment plant. The probability of exceeding the individual parameters for WTPI is slightly larger than for WTPII, which means that this water treatment process may cause lack of chemical stability in the water supply network. Operators should anticipate in the process of designing water distribution system, using proper materials, as to ensure an adequate level of safety from the water source to the water recipient. It should be noted that it is necessary to adjust the material of internal installation of water supply networks to the parameters of the water. At present, there are no correlations between the designing step and water parameters. It was concluded that to protect the water supply infrastructure, which belongs to critical infrastructure, water company should put more emphasis on distribution of stable water that has not potentially corrosion properties. Some suggestions were made for the protection of WDS and to ensure safety of system functioning and long-term usability of water pipes.
The events that took place on April 10,2010 on the Gulf of Mexico began an international debate on minimizing and materializing the risk of dangerous occurrences and accidents during the exploitation of offshore energy resources. In the aftermath of this event to ensure safe operation in European maritime areas, the European Union decided to introduce regulations throughout the entire EU. On June 12, 2013, Directive 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on safety of offshore oil and gas operations and amending Directive 2004/35/EC was issued. The main aim of the Directive is to reduce the occurrence of major accidents relating to offshore oil and gas operations and limits their consequences. The article is a review of provision of Directive 2013/30/UE with particular regard to requirements at the national level. What is more, the paper indicates solutions which must be introduced by July 19, 2018 in offshore companies. The incorporated solutions must include the protection of the marine environment against pollutions (especially oil spills), establish minimum conditions for safe offshore exploration and the production of oil and gas and improve the response mechanism in the eventof an accident. The paper also presents accidents which take place in oil and gas fields which are a background of necessary improvements of safety during offshore operations.
This article analyzes the social content of spatial order concept and manifestations of social participation in shaping this order using two examples: shaping the safety of public spaces and revitalizing cities. The author concludes with proposals to increase public participation in the creation of spatial order.