Early embryonic death (EED) is one of the causes of infertility in the mare. We compared endometrial environment in 9 mares with EED and 13 mares in diestrus phase. Cotton swab (CS), cytobrush (CB) and uterine biopsy (B) samples were obtained for the cytological, bacteriological and histopathological examinations. In the first step we compared CS and CB methods to biopsy as a reference method, as B revealed the highest number of positive results in cytological and bacteriological examinations in both groups. In turn, we also compared cytological, bacteri- ological and histopathological findings between EED and control animals using the B sampling. Although the differences between these groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05), there was a tendency to a higher prevalence of subclinical endometritis in the control group, than in the EED group (62% vs 22%). In general, positive bacteriological results were similar in both groups (62% vs 55%), whereas positive cytological results were higher in the control group (62% vs 22%; p≥0.05). In histopathological examination in EED mares endometrial degeneration was better expressed (all mares were with grades IIB and III on the Kenney-Doig scale); however, the differences between both groups were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). We could not confirm a clear difference in uterine environment between the two groups. Moreover, the uterine biopsy seemed to be the most reasonable sampling method for diagnosis of endometrial state.
Previous studies concerning the categorisation method have been based on short daytime measure- ments. These studies demonstrated urban-noise stratification in the daytime. Nevertheless, legislation and standards refer to noise estimation throughout the day. This paper presents the first attempt to apply the categorisation method to indicators obtained through long-term measurements. The study was conducted in Plasencia, Extremadura (Spain) which has approximately 41,500 inhabitants. First, we conducted a stratification of the roads using the categorisation method. Second, long-term measurements (approxi- mately one week) were conducted at different sampling locations across different categories of streets. The results were analysed by category. Moreover, the profile of the noise-level variation was analysed during the day. The results revealed a stratification of sound levels measured across the different categories. Furthermore, we found health risks due to the noise levels in this town. Short-term measurements were also conducted to complete the categorisation method suitability analysis.