The paper presents a spatial distribution of changes of air temperature (T) in the Arctic. Estimates of their spatial relations in the study region were based on a correlation analysis. T in the Arctic is most strongly correlated spatially in winter and spring, and least in summer. The radius of extent of statistically significant correlation coefficients of changes of T at the stations Svalbard Lufthavn, Ostrov Kotelny and Resolute A is equal to 2000-2500 km in winter and 1500-2000 km in summer. An attempt was done to delimit the regions of consistent occurrence of the anomalies T with respect to the signs and magnitudes, as well as of the regions with the most coherent T. The Wroclaw dendrite method was used to solve this problem. Relations of the mean areał T of the climatic regions and of the Arctic as a whole, with the northern hemisphere of temperature and selected climatic factors are presented.
The wide access to source data, published by numerous websites, results in situation, when information acquisition is not a problem any more. The real problem is how to transform information in the useful knowledge . Cartographic method of research, dealing with spatial data, has been serving this purpose for many years. Nowadays, it allows conducting analyses at the high complexity level, thanks to the intense development in IT technologies, The vast majority of analytic methods utilizing the so-called data mining and data enrichment techniques, however, concerns non-spatial data. According to the Authors, utilizing those techniques in spatial data analysis (including analysis based on statistical data with spatial reference), would allow the evolution of the Spatial Information Infrastructure (SII) into the Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure (SKI). The SKI development would benefit from the existence of statistical geoportal. Its proposed functionality, consisting of data analysis as well as visualization, is outlined in the article. The examples of geostatistical analyses (ANOVA and the regression model considering the spatial neighborhood), possible to implement in such portal and allowing to produce the “cartographic added value”, are also presented here
The processing of cartographic data demands human involvement. Up-to-date algorithms try to automate a part of this process. The goal is to obtain a digital model, or additional information about shape and topology of input geometric objects. A topological skeleton is one of the most important tools in the branch of science called shape analysis. It represents topological and geometrical characteristics of input data. Its plot depends on using algorithms such as medial axis, skeletonization, erosion, thinning, area collapse and many others. Area collapse, also known as dimension change, replaces input data with lower-dimensional geometric objects like, for example, a polygon with a polygonal chain, a line segment with a point. The goal of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the automatic calculation of polygonal chains representing a 2D polygon. The output is entirely contained within the area of the input polygon, and it has a linear plot without branches. The computational process is automatic and repeatable. The requirements of input data are discussed. The author analyzes results based on the method of computing ends of output polygonal chains. Additional methods to improve results are explored. The algorithm was tested on real-world cartographic data received from BDOT/GESUT databases, and on point clouds from laser scanning. An implementation for computing hatching of embankment is described.
An important task for present and future generations is the protection of the national cultural resources. The most attractive architectural objects of historic value include palaces, manors, castles and monasteries. Less attention is paid to educational areas, which apart from the main educational and didactic goal (positive influence on the young person's mind, shaping his personality, social integration) have a great influence on his health, the quality of his life and the shape of his environment. The example of this is the park next to the school complex in Sobieszyn, located in Lublin Voivodeship, Ułęż County. The school complex with its surrounding park established at the end of the 19 th century was given by a will of the Count Kajetan Kanty Kicki, Gozdawa coat of arms, a philantropist and a contemporary owner of Sobieszyn. Localisation of the school, far away from the centre of the village, on the slope of one of the right side tributaries of the Wieprz River – Świnka, makes it an extraordinary place, emphasising the nature values that surround it. Nowadays, the building is still a school- Kajetan Kicki Agriculture School in Sobieszyn.
The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplified by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifiable to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifications in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.
This study presents the indoor soundscape framework in detail by describing the variables and factors that form an indoor soundscape study. The main objective is to introduce a new indoor soundscaping framework and systematically explain the variables that contribute to the overall evaluation of an indoor soundscape. Hence, the dependencies of physical and psychoacoustical factors of the sound environment and the spatial factors of the built entity are statistically tested. The new indoor soundscaping framework leads to an overarching evaluation perspective of enclosed sound environments, combining objective room acoustics research and noise control engineering with architectural analysis. Therefore, it is hypothesised that case spaces with certain plan organisations, volumetric relations, and spatial referencing lead to differentiated sound pressure level (SPL) and loudness (N) values. SPL and N parametric variances of the sound environments are discussed through the statistical findings with respect to the architectural characteristics of each library case space. The results show that the relation between crowd level variances and sound environment parametric values is statistically significant. It is also found that increasing the atrium height and atrium void volume, the atrium’s presence as a common architectural element, and its interpenetrating reference and domain containment results in unwanted variances and acoustic formations, leading to high SPL and N values.
Population density varies sharply from place to place on the whole territory of Poland. The largest number of people per 1 km2 is 21,531, while uninhabited areas account for about 48% of the country. Such uneven, non-Gaussian distribution of the data causes some difficulty in choosing the classification method in geometric choropleth maps. A thorough evaluation of a geometric choropleth map of population data is not possible using only traditional indicators such as the Tabular Accuracy Index (TAI). That is why the aim of the article is to develop an innovative index based on distance analysis and neighbour analysis of grid cells. Two indexes have been suggested in this paper: the Spatial Distance Index (SDI) and the Spatial Contiguity Index (SCI). The paper discusses the use of five classification methods to evaluate choropleth maps of population data, like head-tail breaks, natural breaks, equal intervals, quantile, and geometrical intervals. A comprehensive assessment of such geometric choropleth maps is also done. The research was conducted for the whole territory of Poland, using data from the 2011 National Census of Population and Housing. Population data are presented in the 1km grid. The results of the analysis are shown on thematic maps. A compatibility of the choropleth maps with urban-rural typology of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) was also checked.
We propose a method of constructing multisector-multiregion input-output tables, based on the standard multisector tables and the tools of spatial econometrics. Voivodship-level (NUTS-2) and subregion-level data (NUTS-3) on sectoral value added is used to fit a spatial model, based on a modification of the Durbin model. The structural coefficients are calibrated, based on I-O multipliers, while the spatial weight matrices are estimated as parsimoniously parametrised functions of physical distance and limited supply in certain regions. We incorporate additional restrictions to derive proportions in which every cross-sectoral flow should be interpolated into cross-regional flow matrix. All calculations are based on publicly available data. The method is illustrated with an example of regional economic impact assessment for a generic construction company located in Eastern Poland.
In virtual acoustics or artificial reverberation, impulse responses can be split so that direct and reflected components of the sound field are reproduced via separate loudspeakers. The authors had investigated the perceptual effect of angular separation of those components in commonly used 5.0 and 7.0 multichannel systems, with one and three sound sources respectively (Kleczkowski et al., 2015, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 63, 428-443). In that work, each of the front channels of the 7.0 system was fed with only one sound source. In this work a similar experiment is reported, but with phantom sound sources between the front loud- speakers. The perceptual advantage of separation was found to be more consistent than in the condition of discrete sound sources. The results were analysed both for pooled listeners and in three groups, according to experience. The advantage of separation was the highest in the group of experienced listeners.