The Open Skies Treaty has been a peace-building instrument between North American and European nations for over two decades. This agreement is based on the possibility for each country-signatory of the Treaty to independently conduct observation flights and obtain aerial imagery data of the territories of other Treaty States-Parties. This imagery data was originally acquired only using traditional photographic film cameras. Together with the rapid development and advancement of digital sensor technologies, the logical step forward was to amend the Treaty provisions to allow for the use of these types of sensors during observation missions. This paper describes this transition process and highlights a number of technical problems which needed to be addressed by experts working within the Open Skies Consultative Commission workgroups.
Breast cancer screening is based on X-ray mammography, while ultrasound is considered a complementary technique with improved detection in dense tissue. However, breast cancer screening requires a technique that provides repeatable results at the inspection interval which cannot be achieved with manual breast exploration. During the last years there have appeared several approaches to overcome this limitation by means of automated ultrasonic tomography performed with motorized probes or with a large set of array transducers. This work addresses these problems by considering a quite simple and low-cost arrangement, formed with a ring of conventional medical-grade array probes which are multiplexed to the electronics to build Full Angle Spatially Compounded (FASC) images. The work analyzes the performance of such arrangement in terms of resolution and isotropy, showing by numerical modelling and experimentally that it provides high resolution and homogeneity in the whole imaged region. The implementation of this technique would provide more than one circular FASC per second and a whole breast volume image in 1–2 minutes with conventional technology, a process fast enough to be clinically useful. Moreover, the automated technique is repeatable and can be used by the clinician to perform immediately the diagnosis without requiring additional data processing.
In this paper a possibility of determining a local velocity of the surface acoustic Rayleigh waves using a transducer, with the rigidly connected emitting and receiving parts, is considered. A problem on spatial resolution of such a transducer for investigation of inhomogeneous specimens is also examined. A high spatial resolution can be obtained due to the transducer displacement by a value less than the distance between the emitting and receiving parts. It is shown that in this case it is not necessary to measure the transducer displacement with a high accuracy for precise determination of the velocity. Such an effect is obtained through measuring the velocity of surface waves in one local region of the specimen with respect to the other. The criterion for optimal spatial resolution selection during spatially inhomogeneous specimens study is also proposed. The proposed criterion use is illustrated on the example of the determination of spatial distribution of the surface acoustic velocity in a steel specimen subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation.