In the Accession Treaty of 16 April 2003, Poland agreed to adopt euro as its national currency, but the date of this adoption was not specified. The financial crisis in several countries of the Eurozone, in response to the world financial crisis in 2008, reduced drastically the public support in Poland for the replacement of the zloty by the euro. This article has two objectives. One is to assess the net costs, economic and political, for Poland remaining long outside the Eurozone. In this assessment the analysis includes also two official reports by National Bank of Poland, the country’s central bank, published in 2009 and 2014. The other objective is to note and assess the reforms which have been undertaken by member states of the Eurozone in response to this crisis, in order to maintain and enhance financial stability and economic effectiveness of the rules adopted at the start of the Eurozone on 1 January 1999. The author suggests to consider and adopt additional reforms. Discussed is also the USA experience with its own monetary union, and the potential influence on policy developments in the EU of increasing global competitive pressures from China and India.
Having increasingly tightened geological and mining conditions in which the extraction of copper ore deposits in Poland is conducted, ensuring effective and safe mining is presently becoming a key task and a significant challenge for mine operators, mainly in the field of ground support systems being the equivalent for the new geological/mining conditions. As one may expect, these conditions shall be characterized by higher values of the primary stress tensor elements as well as the lower deformability and higher strength of the rock mass surrounding the copper ore body. T his means that in the near future, the rock bursts problem will become one of the most important issues deciding on the economy and safety within the newly developed mining areas. T herefore developing a novel effective ductile ground support systems which could be able to control the rock mass movement in squeezing and burst-prone rock conditions is recommended. T his type of requirement may fulfil only ductile or, in other words, the kinetic energy-absorbing systems, which permit slowing down a movement of violently ejected rock blocks. T his paper’s objective is to present the idea of the development of a new type of an effective and low cost ductile resin anchored rockbolt system with smooth and of the square cross-section steel rod is formed in coil shape of different pitch. T he developed bolt prototypes have been tested underground in the G-11 section of the Rudna mine. Results of the pull-out tests, involving different bolts’ shapes and different sliding materials set on the rockbolts’ rods, have proved those bolts’ efficiency as an element of the ductile support system.
This paper presents a complex study of anhydrite interbeds influence on the cavern stability in the Mechelinki salt deposit. The impact of interbeds on the cavern shape and the stress concentrations were also considered. The stability analysis was based on the 3D numerical modelling. Numerical simulations were performed with use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the FLAC3D v. 6.00 software. The numerical model in a cuboidal shape and the following dimensions: length 1400, width 1400, height 1400 m, comprised the part of the Mechelinki salt deposit. Three (K-6, K-8, K-9) caverns were projected inside this model. The mesh of the numerical model contained about 15 million tetrahedral elements. The occurrence of anhydrite interbeds within the rock salt beds had contributed to the reduction in a diameter and irregular shape of the analysed caverns. The results of the 3D numerical modelling had indicated that the contact area between the rock salt beds and the anhydrite interbeds is likely to the occurrence of displacements. Irregularities in a shape of the analysed caverns are prone to the stress concentration. However, the stability of the analysed caverns are not expected to be affected in the assumed operation conditions and time period (9.5 years).
The positivity and absolute stability of a class of nonlinear continuous-time and discretetime systems are addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of this class of nonlinear systems are established. Sufficient conditions for the absolute stability of this class of nonlinear systems are also given.
A new concept (notion) of the practical stability of positive fractional discrete-time linear systems is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the practical stability of the positive fractional systems are established. It is shown that the positive fractional systems are practically unstable if corresponding standard positive fractional systems are asymptotically unstable.
The main focus of the paper is on the asymptotic behaviour of linear discrete-time positive systems. Emphasis is on highlighting the relationship between asymptotic stability and the structure of the system, and to expose the relationship between null-controllability and asymptotic stability. Results are presented for both time-invariant and time-variant systems.
This article describes stability issues of main excavations in deep copper mines in Poland, from the perspective of mining work safety. To protect main transportation and ventilation routes, parts of rock are left untaken to form so-called protective pillars. The problem was to determine the size of main excavations protective pillars in deep underground copper mines in which provide stability of main excavations. The results of numerical simulations of the stability of protective pillars under specific geological and mining conditions are presented, covering: underground depth and width of protective pillar, number, size and layout geometry of protected excavations, as well as the impact of parameters of surrounding gob areas. Problem was solved applying numerical simulations based on the finite element method which were performed in a plane state of strain by means of Phase2 v. 8.0 software. The behavior of the rock mass under load was described by an elastic-plastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion was used to assess the stability of the rock mass. The results of numerical modeling have practical applications in the designing of protective pillars primarily in determining their width. These results were used to prepare new guidelines for protective pillars in Polish copper mines in the Legnica-Glogow Copper District.
This paper presents non-linear mathematical model of a computer network with a part of wireless network. The article contains an analysis of the stability of the network based on TCP-DCR, which is a modification of the traditional TCP. Block diagram of the network model was converted to a form in order to investigate the D-stability using the method of the space of uncertain parameters. Robust D-stability is calculated for constant delays values.
In deformation analyses, it is important to find a stable reference frame and therefore the stability of the possible reference points must be controlled. There are several methods to test such stability. The paper’s objective is to examine one of such methods, namely the method based on application of R-estimation, for its sensitivity to gross errors. The method in question applies three robust estimators, however, it is not robust itself. The robustness of the method depends on the number of unstable points (the fewer unstable points there are, the more robust is the proposed method). Such property makes it important to know how the estimates applied and the strategy itself respond to a gross error. The empirical influence functions (EIF) can provide necessary information and help to understand the response of the strategy for a gross error. The paper presents examples of EIFs of the estimates, their application in the strategy and describes how important and useful is such knowledge in practice.
The paper deals with linear circuits synthesis with periodic parameters. It was proved that the time-varying voltages and currents of inner branches of such circuits can be calculated using linear recursive equations with periodic coefficients if signals on port are given. The stability theorem of periodic solution was formulated. Hereby described the synthesis problems appear when compensation of power supply systems is considered.
Stability of silver nanoparticles strongly influences the potential of their application. The literature shows wide possibilities of nanoparticles preparation, which has significantly impact on their properties. Therefore, the improvement of AgNPs preparation plays a key role in the case of their practical use. The pH values of the environment are one of the important factors, which directly influences stability of AgNPs. We present a comparing study of the silver nanoparticles prepared by „bottom-up“ methods over by chemical synthesis and biosynthesis using AgNO3 (0.29 mM) solution. For the biosynthesis of the silver nanoparticles, the green freshwater algae Parachlorella kessleri and Citrus limon extracts were used as reducing and stabilizing agents. Chemically synthesized AgNPs were performed using sodium citrate (0.5%) as a capping agent and 0.01% gelatine as a reducing agent. The formation and long term stability of those silver nanoparticles synthesized either biologically and chemically were clearly observed by solution colour changes and confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The pH values of formed nanoparticle solutions were 3 and 5.8 for biosynthesized AgNPs using extract of Citrus limon and Parachlorella kessleri, respectively and 7.2 for chemically prepared AgNPs solution using citrate. The SEM as a surface imaging method was used for the characterization of nanoparticle shapes, size distribution and also for resolving different particle sizes. These micrographs confirmed the presence of dispersed and aggregated AgNPs with various shapes and sizes.
The paper presents the response of a three-layered annular plate with damaged laminated facings to the loads acting in their planes. The presented problem concerns the analysis of the combination of global plate failure in the form of buckling with the local micro defects, like fibre or matrix cracks, located in the laminas. The plate structure consists of thin laminated, fibre-reinforced composite facings and a thicker foam core. The matrix and fibre cracks of facings laminas can be transversally symmetrically or asymmetrically located in plate structure. Critical static and dynamic stability analyses were carried out solving the problem numerically and analytically. The numerical results show the static and dynamic stability state of the composite plate with different combinations of damages. The final results are compared with those for undamaged structure of the plate and treated as quasi-isotropic ones. The analysed problem makes it possible to evaluate the use of the non-ideal composite plate structure in practical applications.
The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of an electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.
This paper describes a design process of HALE PW-114 sensor-craft, developed for high altitude (20 km) long endurance (40 h) surveillance missions. Designed as a blended wing (BW) conﬁguration, to be made of metal and composite materials. Wing control surfaces provide longitudinal balance. Fin in the rear fuselage section together with wingtips provide directional stability. Airplane is equipped with retractable landing gear with controlled front leg that allows operations from conventional airﬁelds. According to the initial requirements it is twin engine conﬁguration, typical payload consists of electro-optical/infra-red FLIR, big SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and SATCOM antenna required for the longest range. Tailless architecture was based on both Horten and Northrop design experience. Global Hawk was considered as a reference point – it was assumed that BW design has to possess eﬃciency, relative payload and other characteristics at least the same or even better than that of Global Hawk. FLIR, SAR and SATCOM containers were optimised for best visibility. All payload systems are put into separate modular containers of easy access and quickly to exchange, so this architecture can be consider as a „modular”. An optimisation process started immediately when the so-called “zero conﬁguration”, called PW-111 was ready. It was designed in the canard conﬁguration. A canard was abandoned in HALE PW-113. Instead, new, larger outer wing was designed with smaller taper ratio. New conﬁguration analysis revealed satisfactory longitudinal stability. Calculations suggested better lateral qualities for negative dihedral. These modiﬁcations, leading to aerodynamic improvement, gave HALE PW-114 as a result. The design process was an interdisciplinary approach, and included a selection of thick laminar wing section, aerodynamic optimisation of swept wing, stability analysis, weight balance, structural and ﬂutter analysis, many on-board redundant systems, reliability and maintability analysis, safety improvement, cost and performance optimisation. Presented paper focuses mainly on aerodynamics, wing design, longitudinal control and safety issues. This activity is supported by European Union within V FR, in the area Aeronautics and Space.
The In this paper stabilisation problem of LC ladder network is established. We studied the following cases: stabilisation by inner resistance, by velocity feedback and stabilisation by dynamic linear feedback, in particularly stabilisation by first range dynamic feedback. The global asymptotic stability of the respectively system is proved by LaSalle’s theorem. In the proof the observability of the dynamic system plays an essential role. Numerical calculations were made using the Matlab/Simulink program.
Simple new necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability of the positive linear discrete-time systems with delays in states are established. It is shown that asymptotic stability of the system is equivalent to asymptotic stability of the corresponding positive discrete-time system without delays of the same size. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.
The paper addresses the problem of constrained pole placement in discrete-time linear systems. The design conditions are outlined in terms of linear matrix inequalities for the Dstable ellipse region in the complex Z plain. In addition, it is demonstrated that the D-stable circle region formulation is the special case of by this way formulated and solved pole placement problem. The proposed principle is enhanced for discrete-lime linear systems with polytopic uncertainties.
The mechanical behavior and the change of retained austenite of nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy have been investigated by considering the effect of various Ni addition amount. The nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy samples were rapidly fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The SPS is a well-known effective sintering process with an extremely short densification time not only to reach a theoretical density value but also to prevent a grain growth, which could result in a nanocrystalline structures. The effect of Ni addition on the compressive stress-strain behavior was analyzed. The variation of the volume fraction of retained austenite due to deformation was quantitatively measured by means of x-ray diffraction and microscope analyses. The strain-induced martensite transformation was observed in Fe-Ni alloy. The different amount of Ni influenced the rate of the strain-induced martensite transformation kinetics and resulted in the change of the work hardening during the compressive deformation.
New frequency domain methods for stability analysis of linear continuous-time fractional order systems with delays of the retarded type are given. The methods are obtained by generalisation to the class of fractional order systems with delays of the Mikhailov stability criterion and the modified Mikhailov stability criterion known from the theory of natural order systems without and with delays. The study is illustrated by numerical examples of time-delay systems of commensurate and non-commensurate fractional orders.
An alternative approach of the determining of conditions of safe stability loss of rectilinear motion of a wheeled vehicle model with controlled wheel module in the sense of N.N. Bautin is considered. The slipping forces are presented accurate within cubic expansion terms in the skid angles. Terms and conditions of safe stability loss depend on the ratio between the coefficients of resistance to the skid, the adhesion coefficients in the transverse direction of the axes and the parameter of torsional stiffness of the controlled wheel module. The presented approach to the analysis of real bifurcations related to the divergent loss of rectilinear motion mode stability has a clear geometric pattern: if in the vicinity of rectilinear motion at subcritical speed, there are additionally two unstable circular stationary states, then the stability limit is of dangerous nature in the sense of N.N. Bautin; if two circular stationary modes exist at supercritical speed, the limit of the stability loss in the parameter space of the longitudinal velocity is safe in the sense of N.N. Bautin. Analysis of the number of stationary modes in the vicinity of the critical velocity of rectilinear motion is performed for the obtained determining equation - cubic binomial.