The paper presents the least admissible dimensions of black lines of spatial object images, according to Saliszczew, adjusted to the needs of database generalization. It is pointed out, that the adjusted dimensions are in agreement with the cartographic norm included in the National Map Accuracy Standards , and their application to the generalization 1 will allow, for any map scale, the determination of the: • value of the scale-dependent parameter of the generalization process, without user action; • measure of recognizability of the shortest black line section on the map, what helps to obtain unique results of line generalization; • measure of recognizability of black lines in the image – using a standard (elementary triangle) – helpful in obtaining unique result of line simplification, and an assessment of the process; • recognizability distance between lines of close buildings, securing unique aggregation of them; • verification of spatial object image lines visualization. The new solutions were tested with the Douglas-Peucker (1973) generalization algorithm, modified by the author, which treats the minimal dimensions as geometric attributes, while object classes and their data hierarchy as descriptive attributes. This approach secures uniqueness of results on any level of generalization process, in which data of spatial objects in the DLM model are transformed to conform with the requirements for the DCM model data.
The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement ( TanDEM-X) mission launched in 2010 is another programme – after the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 – that uses space-borne radar interferometry to build a global digital surface model. This article presents the accuracy assessment of the TanDEM-X intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM) provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) under the project “Accuracy assessment of a Digital Elevation Model based on TanDEM-X data” for the southwestern territory of Poland. The study area included: open terrain, urban terrain and forested terrain. Based on a set of 17,498 reference points acquired by airborne laser scanning, the mean errors of average heights and standard deviations were calculated for areas with a terrain slope below 2 degrees, between 2 and 6 degrees and above 6 degrees. The absolute accuracy of the IDEM data for the analysed area, expressed as a root mean square error (Total RMSE), was 0.77 m.
Spatial Disorder vs. Data Collection on Spatial Planning in Poland. The article deals with the issue of spatial disorder as a consequence of lack of information about spatial planning in local government administration units. An efficient monitoring system of spatial planning on the local level is indispensable for the effective implementation of public policies, development strategies and operational programmes. Lack of full knowledge of land use leads to irrational and unsustainable use of resources in municipalities. The activities of public statistics in the field of the quality of information on spatial management concern the quality and methods of obtaining data, while adjusting the information available to the needs of authorities responsible for spatial planning at all levels.
Defining species boundaries, due to morphological variation, often represents a significant challenge in paleozoology. In this paper we report results from multi− and univariate data analyses, such as enhanced clustering techniques, principal coordinates ordination method, kernel density estimations and finite mixture model analyses, revealing some morphometric patterns within the Eocene Antarctic representatives of Palaeeudyptes penguins. These large−sized birds were represented by two species, P. gunnari and P. klekowskii , known mainly from numerous isolated bones. Investigations focused on tarsometatarsi, crucial bones in paleontology of early penguins, resulted in a probability−based framework allowing for the “fuzzy” partitioning the studied specimens into two taxa with partly overlapping size distributions. Such a number of species was supported by outcomes from both multi− and univariate studies. In our opinion, more reliance should be placed on the quantitative analysis of form when distinguishing between species within the Antarctic Palaeeudyptes .