The Hornsund region is characterised by a topoclimatic variation, which results principally from the local orography, the vicinity of open sea and the two contrasting environments: non-glaciated and glaciated. The specific types of atmospheric circulation determine the local thermal differences. The west coast is characterised by the most favourable thermal conditions, where air temperature is largely determined by foehn processes. The temperature at the Baranowski Station is 0.8°C higher on average than that of the Polish Polar Station on the northern shore of Hornsund . The temperature in the northern shore of the fjord happens to be higher than that on the west coast, which is attributed to the NW cyclonic inflow of cool Arctic air masses. During intermediate weather, when ground frost-thaw takes place, the northern shore of Hornsund is warmer by 0.5°C ; whereas, during moderately frosty weather, it is warmer by 0.2°C than the west coast. The differences result from the effect of the warmer fjord waters on the surrounding air temperature. During moderately warm weather, more favourable conditions occur near the Baranowski Station, expressed by the mean temperature difference of 0.9°C. The greatest temperature difference of 1.5°C on average is normally recorded during warm weather.
This paper describes the spatial differentiation of topoclimatic conditions in the vicinity of the Arctowski Station (King George Island, Antarctica) during the summer season of the 2006/2007. The measurement stations were located in the Point Thomas oasis as well as on the Ecology Glacier and Warszawa Icefield. The paper analyses meteorological elements such as air temperature, air humidity (eight sites) and wind direction and velocity (three sites). Significant topoclimatic diversities resulting from denivelation, exposure, ground properties and local air circulation were recorded in the study area.
The thermal, anemometric and bioclimatic conditions on the topoclimatic scale were investigated in the summer season in the EbbaValley region in central Spitsbergen. Eight measurement sites, representing different ecosystems and different types of active surfaces typical of Spitsbergen, were chosen and automatic, hourly recorded, measurements were per− formed at the sites between 11 and 25 of July 2009. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the air temperature and thewind−chill temperature, both for the dayswith radiation and non−ra− diation weather, indicates that the most favorable regions in the interior of Spitsbergen are those situated in the shielded central parts of the valleys and in the lower parts of the slopes with southern exposure. The thermal and wind conditions are definitely less favorable at the tops of elevations and on the glacier. Large differences between the air temperature and the wind−chill temperature were noted, particularly during the unfavorable non−radiation weather, on the glacier and on open peaks due to a large horizontal and vertical wind−chill temperature gradient. The thermal inversions observed in the Ebba Valley in July 2009 were not of the typi− cal, glacier katabatic wind origin. They appeared during the western air circulation, which brings advection of cooled air from above the cold waters of Petunia Bay. The cold air pene− trates into the valley and pushes upwards themass of warmer air in the valley, creating a rather thin inversion layer, whose upper edge is marked with thin Stratus clouds.
This article presents the results of observations of selected fluxes of the radiation balance in north-western Spitsbergen in the years from 2010 to 2014. Measurements were taken in Ny-Ålesund and in the area of Kaffiøyra, on different surface types occurring in the Polar zone: moraine, tundra, snow and ice. Substantial differences in the radiation balance among the various types of surface were observed. The observations carried out in the summer seasons of 2010-2014 in the area of Kaffiøyra demonstrated that the considerable reflection of solar radiation on the Waldemar Glacier (albedo 55%) resulted in a smaller solar energy net income. During the polar day, a diurnal course of the components of the radiation balance was apparently related to the solar elevation angle. When the sun was low over the horizon, the radiation balance became negative, especially on the glacier. Diurnal, annual and multi-annual variations in the radiation balance have a significant influence on the functioning of the environment in polar conditions.