Characters with split personalities in Nessuno torna indietro by Alba de Céspedes and the German-Polish history of the novel – This paper focuses on the Polish reception of Nessuno torna indietro, a novel by Alba de Céspedes. In Italy the novel was a bestseller between 1938 and the eighties, however it was impossible to publish it in Poland due to the fact that negotiations failed. Nevertheless, the book was translated into Polish on the basis of the German version and published in a newspaper in 1947. The presentation of the Polish history of this novel will be based on archival materials.
This paper has two parts to it. The fi rst part is about the presence and possible impact of Hindi and Polish as foreign words in the contemporary English language. This is measured via the proposed tool of CRAC (Cumulative Average Relative Count). The research is done on the basis of the British National Corpus (2001, 2007) and Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2004, 2009). The focus is laid on the overriding heuristic metaphor LANGUAGE LAWS are PHYSICAL LAWS, where laws of lexical assimilation are viewed as analogous to physical laws of gravity. The second part marks the transition from a theoretical-descriptive perspective into a more practical, intercultural dimension. It is about translation of foreign proper names from the viewpoint of legal (certifi ed) translation. This is a signifi cant issue as many foreign words are actually proper names in English. This part relates then to specifi c controversies and proposed solutions concerning translation of Polish and Hindi proper foreign names in view of the presence and absence of their diacritic forms in English. The framework for adoption of the argument are institutionally established standards of certifi ed translation practice in Poland.
The paper aims to discuss the specific characteristics of Italian employment contract from a linguistic point of view as well as from the point of view of the translation. First of all, the employment contract as a legal document will be discussed in regard to the text classifi cation proposed by Sabatini (1990). Moreover, the general typology of Italian and Polish employment contracts will be taken into consideration. The analysis is complemented by Polish equivalents of the main Italian terms and phrases used usually in the employment contact. The fi nal comments will be dedicated to the issue of translation procedures used for dealing with the translation shifts proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) and Cosmai (2007).
Notes on Foscolo and the English language (1816–1827) – Foscolo never managed to master his host country’s language during his years of exile in London (1816–1827). The vast production of his English years consists almost entirely of works intended to be translated by other people and thus to be considered as provisional drafts. In this paper, the relationship between Foscolo and the English language is analysed and discussed, focusing in particular on his interactions with his translators and on his linguistic vision.
This article is confrontational with the theses presented in the paper: O pewnym (chybionym) studium przypadku [About a (wrong) case study ] (Chybińska 2017), which is the answer to the issues presented in the article: Etyka w przekładzie specjalistycznym a kompetencje tłumacza tekstów specjalistycznych — studium przypadku [Ethics in specialized translation and competence of specialist translator: case study] (Boroch 2017). In this article (Boroch 2017), the methodological principles in the specialist translation and the substantive and ethical consequences of their violation have been presented. Exemplary material was the Polish translation of Henryk Hiż's article: Peirce's Influence on Logic in Poland (Hiż 1997, 264–270) published in ”Studia z Filozofii Polskiej” in 2015 (Hiż 2015, 21–29) along with a biographical section (Chybińska 2015, 29–33) which both constitute a coherent publication. The article has raised the following issues: (1) the lack of justification of the basis of translation, i.e. the primacy of the manuscript over the printed version, that is the last one controlled by the author; (2) inconsistency with regard to termination of translation; (3) unauthorized introduction of a Polish neologism “dylematyczny” derived from the (non-existent) English lexical unit “dylemmatic” (Sic!); (4) proposal of the notation of Peirce's law: (p, q, r ) (Sic!).
Kazimierz Jaworski contributed to a great extent to popularising Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry in the interwar period. Most of Jaworski’s translations of Malaniuk’s poems into Polish were published in the years 1933–1937 in the magazine Kamena in Chełm. The poet from Lublin undertook to translate less popular poems, unknown to Polish readers. He opted not to work with the Ukrainian poet’s patriotic works, familiar to Polish literary circles, and chose poems of intimate and existential nature instead. From the two collections which were known in Poland, Earth And Iron (1930) and The Earthly Madonna (1934), he selected poems which in a special way correlate with his own lyrical works from the To a Red And White Mistress (1924) collection. What deserves special attention among Kazimierz Jaworski’s translating techniques is his exceptional diligence in choosing suitable Polish semantic equivalents and in rendering an appropriate rhythm of poems. Most of his translations can be described as adequate. They are not absolute, but they convey the originality of a given work through preserving the form and contents of the translated poem in the most faithful way possible. Jaworski’s translations show his inclination to poetise and dynamise the text. The translator readily uses his own metaphors and expands phrases with emotionally charged elements. Kazimierz Andrzej Jaworski was also a tireless propagator of information concerning the most recent translations of Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry as well as the publishing activities of one of the most valued representatives of the Ukrainian immigration in Poland.
The aim of this article is a translation in the nation-creating function. From the middle of 18th century Ukrainian writers want to improve position of Ukrainian language in the state, show his uniqueness. Their method to achieved the object was translation masterpices of European literature into Ukrainian. This was evidence that Ukrainian language is independent language and could exist.
The theme of the article is the concept of credentials based on the data from general and terminological dictionaries. It contains a proposal for a Russian-Polish entry article with the name of this diplomatic document (entry article as a part of a translation dictionary within the project “Diplomacy and politics. Russian-Polish dictionary survey”). The author explains the history of this term in both languages, focusing on the dissimilarity of its grammatical form both in Russian and Polish monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, which is especially visible while comparing dictionary and textual data. The material derived from Russian and Polish parallel texts (autonomous, independent of each other) is described according to the recommendations adopted for translation dictionaries – providing their users with the practical information on the usage of units (their syntactic requirements and usage conditions). The analysis also devotes ample attention to the socalled undescribed translated items (equivalents not recorded so far in Russian-Polish/ Polish-Russian lexicography). The discussion of numerous bilingual dictionaries justifi es the claim that a considerable part of collected units can be regarded as undescribed translated items (undescribed equivalents).
The article is an attempt to present Józef Czechowicz’s relationships with the early works of Oleh Olzhych from the Камінь (1932) and Бронза (1932) cycles, preceding his debut collection of poems entitled Рінь (1935). Oleh Kandyba’s poems became the subject of interest of Polish literary circles as early as in the 1930s. His poems were translated mostly by writers associated with the Kamena magazine based in Chełm, a group whose member was also Józef Czechowicz. Kandyba’s poetry, described as “tragic optimism,” is to a large extent analogous with the works of the poet from Lublin. Both authors include apocalyptic and Arcadian motifs in their poems. Their compositions, based on contrast, are accompanied by Biblical and classical motifs, in which the imagery of stone played a special role. Both Olzhych and Czechowicz took care over the clarity of their poetry and focused on the right choice of words. Poems provided them with a means of escape from the realities of war and constituted a kind of an appeal to the nation.
The article is concerned with methods of translating V. Shukshin’s occasionalisms into English. The study material has been extracted from translations done by A. Bromfield, K.M. Cook, R. Daglish, W.G. Fiedorow, J. Givens, G. Gutsche, G.A. Hosking, D. Illiffe, L. Michael, H. Smith, N. Ward. Based on the analysis of the material the following means of conveying V. Shukshin’s occasionalisms can be distinguished: translation by substitution, translation by means modifying idiomatic expressions, applying semantic calquing, using a descriptive method to recreate occasionalisms, as well as lexical and grammatical transformations. Two of them can be considered fully equivalent ways of recreating the writer’s occasionalisms (translation by means modifying idiomatic expressions, semantic calquing), the rest, however, should be regarded as only partially accurate.
The issue of the morphemic analysis of medical terminology is a crucial factor in terms of translation strategies and compilation of a terminological dictionary. The research was conducted in the context of author’s current lexicographical work called as English-Ukrainian-Russian defining dictionary of dental terms. To provide the user of the dictionary with reliable techniques to construct the meaning of terms, morphemes relative frequency in the area of dentistry have been determined.
Based on theatricality, humour and camp aesthetics, the novel Lubiewo (2005) by the Polish writer Michał Witkowski recounts the tragicomic lives and adventures of Polish queers under Communism. One of the main features of the novel is the meaning-bearing nicknames of the characters, which result from the camp practice of “queer renaming”. This relies on transforming or substituting male proper names with ironic and witty female nicknames. The paper analyses the German, French, English and Czech translations of the novel to explain the strategies used to render such “talking nouns” in new linguistic-cultural contexts.
“Domani è un altro giorno” (Tomorrow is another day): the translation of “Via col vento” (Gone With the Wind) as an idiomatic channel – Gone With the Wind has contributed to the planet’s collective memory, not only because a great percentage of the world’s population has identified with the characters and the stories within, but also because, on a linguistic level, the novel has set in motion considerable reuse phenomena. One wonders how much and in what way the phraseology within the text has influenced contemporary Italian and how translators have approached the original text when preparing the Italian editions of the novel.
In recounting or representing speech, both oral storyteller and literary narrator as well as the modern translator have at their disposal similar interpretive choices in how to represent it, ranging from mimesis to paraphrase to a simple notice that speech occurred. Most commonly, these metapragmatic comments take the shape of quotative frames, which introduce the represented speech and specify various pragmatic features of it, such as the original speaker, the original addressee, the nature of the speech event, or the reason for the speech event. The metapragmatic variety of quotative frames encountered within the Hebrew Bible has usually been described as the work of authors/redactors and attributed to written literary style. In this paper we first describe the metapragmatic shapes of quotative frames in Biblical Hebrew narrative and their discourse pragmatic functions. We then review recent evidence which suggests that at least some of the metapragmatic variety in biblical narrative reflects the oral strategies of representation employed by the storytellers/performers of originally oral texts. Finally, we explore the ways in which modern translators of the biblical text also engage in interpretation (or, a metapragmatic analysis) of the speech events portrayed in the text, using the story of the rape of Dinah (Genesis 34) as an example.
The science of lexicography with its focus on etymology reaches back to ancient times; the history of Tibetan dictionaries is almost as old as the written language itself. About 1,200 years ago, the wish to translate the Buddhist scriptures in Sanskrit initiated the compilation of the first bilingual dictionary. lt provides Tibetan synonyms for Sanskrit terms and is written in Tibetan script. lt was compiled and used by monks who worked as scholars and translators. Throughout the following centuries, Tibetan dictionaries have been compiled, and, as will be shown, this happened for various reasons. As the Tibetan language is not yet fully explored, new dictionaries for Tibetan are still being worked on. One of these is under preparation in Munich; it will be the focus of the main part of this article. As the paper addresses a wider audience and not specifically scholars of Tibetan studies, l will situate Tibetan lexicography within a broader context, commencing with a brief introduction into the Tibetan script and language followed by a survey on the development of Tibetan lexicography and dictionaries. Then, the paper introduces the Wörterbuch der tibetischen Schriftsprache, an ongoing long-term project at the Bavarian Academy for Sciences and Humanities in Munich.
The subject of the considerations put forward in this article is an evaluation of the quality, in substantive and ethical terms, of the specialist translation into Polish of Henryk Hiż’s article ‘Peirce’s Influence on Logic in Poland’. The translation subjected to evaluation here was published in 2015 in the specialist philosophical journal Studia z Filozofii Polskiej [Studies of Polish Philosophy] (October 2015, pp. 21–33). In the presented evaluation, I point out substantive and ethical violations committed by interpreter, calling attention to (a) the flouting of the principle cuilibet in arte sua ; (b) manipulation of source material; (c) dishonesty in philological-textological development; (d) improper editorial preparation; (e) disregard of the subsequent literature on the subject; (f) deliberate and unjustified abridgement of the original text. The deficiencies enumerated in points (a)–(f) are the result of interpreter’s adoption of the ‘publish or perish’ strategy, the overriding goal of which is to publish an article in a high-impact journal with the aim of achieving the most favourable bibliometric result in the shortest possible time, at a cost to the integrity and ethical responsibility of the translator-researcher.
This article examines the ontological and spatial character of the waterfront and its influence on perception and design, with particular focus on the process of reproduction of space (Lefebvre) through the generation of mental maps. The convergence of land and water holds in itself an inherent tension between the accessible and the unattainable: the unconscious can be projected on the unknowable underwater space; the unseen domain beyond the horizon can hold a promise of a better world. Another polarity is that of the familiar and the unknown/exotic, off ering a new perspective, a reevaluation of the familiar through the process of ‘ostranenie’ (Shklovsky),’verfremdung’ (Brecht) or ‘estrangement’. The impact of these polarities reaches beyond the spectacle of urban life, the cinematic experience or the theatrum mundi: it enables the reevaluation of the preconceptions of beauty and utility, as exemplifi ed by Futurist Manifesto (Marinetti). These polarities manifest themselves in the hierarchy and dynamics of a waterfront community: physical impermanence of water dwellings foregrounds the contingent nature of human relationships. The waterfront community inhabits superimposed yet separate networks of land and water. First, mental maps have to be generated for each of these separately, then they have to be reconciled in a coherent whole in a separate process. That mapping of the separate networks necessitates a physical transition, a spatial translation that also has linguistic consequences: a different semantic field is assigned to the vocabulary of the everyday, for the significance of the basic terms like ‘home’ or ‘street’ need a modifi ed definition. All the aforementioned processes and phenomena infl uence the ability to perceive, design and reproduce waterfront areas of cities.
The jubilee volume “Slavica Wratislaviensia”, CLIX: Wyraz i zdanie w językach słowiańskich (8), is a collection of contributions by pupils, collegues, and friends, dedicated to Professor Jan Sokołowski slavist of Wroclaw University, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The publication topics covered subjects connected with researches on word and sentence in Slavic languages, their description, comparative and contrastive studies, and translation. They take up important current topics, reliably and comprehensively analyze problems that have not been noticed before or have not been solved yet. Due to the selection of topics and high scientific level (most authors are renowned linguists) the volume should be considered as representative for contemporary Slavic linguistics.
The Epistle of Barnabas, usually included in the works of the Apostolic Fathers, is an anonymous text written in koiné Greek. It was probably composed between the end of the First and the beginning of the Second Century in an Egyptian or Syro-Palestinian setting. The text is made up of two parts: the first one has an anti-Judaic apologetic nature; the second one is instructive and paraenetical. The Latin version of the Epistle (L), which is useful in the constitutio textus of the original too, concerns the first of the two parts. An analysis of the language and of the technique of translation allows asserting that L was probably compiled in Rome between the end of the Second and the beginning of the Third Century. Moreover, its main features may be identified in the literality and in the linguistic and stylistic popularity. The literality is both quantitative and distributional: the changes are usually narrow (except expressions which introduce Biblical quotations) and concern parts which may be considered accessory by a semantic point of view. The popular style is due to the attention the translator pays to the needs of the sociocultural situation of the readers and is confirmed by the presence of rhetorical figures as alliteration. These two characteristics, which are typical of Latin translations of Greek Patristic texts compiled between the end of the Second and the beginning of the Third Century, are due to stylistic choices which are homogeneously and congruently applied. Moreover, in L these characteristics are strictly bound, because the sermo humilis characterizes the Greek text too.
Anne of Green Gables by L.M. Montgomery (1908) enjoys unprecedented popularity in Poland and has played a considerable role in the shaping of modern Polish culture. As many as fourteen different translations of the fi rst volume of the series have been published; moreover, there exists an active Polish fandom of Montgomery’s oeuvre. The authors of this article briefly discuss the cultural and social aspects of this phenomenon which was triggered off in 1911 by Rozalia Bernsteinowa’s Polish translation of Anne of Green Gables. Her translation, still regarded as the canonical text, greatly altered the realities of the original novel. As a result, in Poland Anne of Green Gables has the status of a children’s classic, whereas readers in the English-speaking world have always treated it as an example of the sub-genre of juvenile college (school) girls’ literature. The identity of the Polish translator of L.M. Montgomery’s book remains a mystery, and even the name on the cover may well be pen name (though, at any rate, it strongly suggests that she must have belonged to the Jewish intelligentsia of the early 20th century). What we do know about her for fact is that she was a translator of German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and English literature. Comparing Rozalia Bernsteinowa’s Polish text to its English original has been a subject of many Polish B.A. and M.A. theses. The argument of this article is that her key reference for was not the English text, but that of the fi rst Swedish translation by Karin Jensen named Anne på Grönkulla (1909).