“The influenza virus behaves just as it seems to have done for five hundred or a thousand years, and we are no more capable of stopping epidemics or pandemics than our ancestors were,” wrote Charles Cockburn from the World Health Organization back in 1973. Is his remark still just as apt today?
Poland’s National Vaccination Program is an essential element in the strategy of prevention of infectious diseases and their complications, here considered with a particular focus on combination vaccines and the need for the Program’s further expansion.
Since late 2011, porcine infections with highly virulent and antigenic variant of pseudorabies virus (PRV) cause great economic loss in the swine industry in China, and its emergence leads to variable protection efficacy of the commercially available PRV vaccine. In the present study, the potential cross-protective efficacy of two live virus vaccines, includ- ing a commercial vaccine, and an attenuated low pathogenic PRV variant (rPRVTJ-delTK/gE/gI) against a PRV variant Tianjing (TJ) was evaluated in piglets. Vaccination of piglets with the live vaccine Bartha-K61 could not reduce the clinical signs, and was partially efficacious in the reduc- tion of viral loads upon PRV variant TJ challenge, indicating that this live vaccine provided limited cross-protection efficacy against the PRV variant infection. Additionally, rPRVTJ-delTK/gE/gI appeared to exert some beneficial efficiency in shortening the period of clinical fever and improv- ing the growth performance of the challenged pigs. Our findings give a valuable guidance for the choice and use of PRV vaccines to control PRV variant infection in the field.
The application of immune serum is one of the most efficient method used formerly in the protection of raised piglets’/weaners’ health . The objective of the study was to determine specific antibody response during hyperimmunization of fatteners with a self-prepared subunit vaccine, and to propose production method of immune serum against Gram-negative bacteria antigens. The vaccine was administered every two weeks, 4 times. Individual and pooled serum samples were assayed for IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Histophilus somni recombinant Hsp60, H.somni rOMP40 and Pasteurella multocida LPS. Additionally total serum IgG and haptoglobin concentrations were measured. Two weeks after the first vaccination IgM antibody raised significantly against H.s. rOMP40 and LPS, whereas after 4 weeks it increased against rHsp60 antigens. Anti-LPS IgM antibody raised up stepwise till the end of the observation, but IgM antibody against H.s. rHsp60 and H.s. rOMP40 decreased in further samplings. A significant raise in IgG class H.s. rHsp60- -antibody was found 4 weeks after the first immunization and a similar raise against two remain- ing antigens after 6 weeks. The intensity of the reaction increased till the end of the experiment. The raise in IgA antibody level was observed only for H.s. rHsp60 antigen. Clinically observed, proper animal health and welfare were confirmed by haptoglobin concentration, which remained in physiological range. At least 4 booster doses were necessary to obtain hyperimmune serum containing a high level of antibodies against examined antigens. The number of immunizations influenced response profiles for specific IgM, IgG, IgA antibodies.