The article presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a tubular fuel cell and its verification on four experiments. Despite the fact that fuel cells are still rarely used in commercial applications, their use has become increasingly more common. Computational Flow Mechanics codes allow to predict basic parameters of a cell such as current, voltage, combustion composition, exhaust temperature, etc. Precise models are particularly important for a complex energy system, where fuel cells cooperate with gas, gas-steam cycles or ORCs and their thermodynamic parameters affect those systems. The proposed model employs extended Nernst equation to determine the fuel cell voltage and steadystate shifting reaction equilibrium to calculate the exhaust composition. Additionally, the reaction of methane reforming and the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen have been implemented into the model. The numerical simulation results were compared with available experiment results and the differences, with the exception of the Tomlin experiment, are below 5%. It has been proven that the increase in current density lowers the electrical efficiency of SOFCs, hence fuel cells typically work at low current density, with a corresponding efficiency of 45–50% and with a low emission level (zero emissions in case of hydrogen combustion).
The paper deals with multiple soft fault diagnosis of analogue circuits. A method for diagnosis of linear circuits is developed, belonging to the class of the fault verification techniques. The method employs a measurement test performed in the frequency domain, leading to the nonlinear least squares problem. To solve this problem the Powell minimization method is applied. The diagnostic method is adapted to real circumstances, taking into account deviations of fault-free parameters and measurement uncertainty. Two examples of electronic circuits encountered in practice demonstrate that the method is efficient for diagnosis of middle-sized circuits. Although the method is dedicated to linear circuits it can be adapted to multiple soft fault diagnosis of nonlinear ones. It is illustrated by an example of a CMOS circuit designed in a sub-micrometre technology.
On the basis of mathematical modeling of fluid flow in vortex devices verification of use of detached-eddy simulation method in the swirling flows in vortex chamber superchargers is made. Research of a flow with use of different turbulence models was made for vortex chamber supercharger in two working points of the characteristic: with the open exit channel and closed. Verification has been spent on integrated parameters, and also on kinematic, by comparison of static pressure value of on the top end cover of the device. It is received that the hybrid turbulence model DES does not allow, as well as model SST precisely to predict value of vacuum on an axis of the vortex chamber. The error makes an order of 20 %. However, DES predicts almost correct, on 20 % big, than model SST, values of vacuum on an axis in a throat axial diffuser on an input in the vortex chamber. Besides, by means of DES it is possible to describe more adequately unsteady structures near to an axis of the vortex chamber, and also vortex core precession that does not allow to make SST turbulence model. By optimization of vortex devices, and vortex chamber superchargers in particular, simulation time essentially is better to use SST turbulence model with rotation-curvature correction.
Agility is a concept and practice with significant importance in managing and leading added value in products, services, projects, and organizations, although it’s usage can also be very risky due to its degree of fuzziness, if not properly understood and defined. This research re-defines agility, emphasizes the need for ontologies for its management and leadership applications and uses a new type of fuzzy logic-based software to measure the degree of agility inside a technology company. In our agility research, various definitions of agility were first gathered and presented for the creation of an agility ontology through a mind map, revealing the main characteristics of agility. Then as part of the Co-Evolute theory and methodology, the first agility ontology was developed as well as the first software application that evaluates the degree of agility in an organization. The application includes statements on which the respondents give opinions in their situation concerning the current and future desired states of agility and its importance in an evaluative way. Today the application has been fully tested in the real world and we have obtained the first test results. The positive verification and validation of the method are shown in this article.