A vocal tract model based on a digital waveguide is presented in which the vocal tract has been decomposed into uniform cylindrical segments of variable lengths. We present a model for the real-time numerical solution of the digital waveguide equations in a uniform tube with the temporally varying cross section. In the current work, the uniform cylindrical segments of the vocal tract may have their different lengths, the time taken by the sound wave to propagate through a cylindrical segment in an axial direction may not be an integer multiple of each other. In such a case, the delay in an axial direction is necessarily a fractional delay. For the approximation of fractional-delay filters, Lagrange interpolation is used in the current model. Variable length of the individual segment of the vocal tract enables the model to produce realistic results. These results are validated with accurate benchmark model. The proposed model has been devised to elongate or shorten any arbitrary cylindrical segment by a suitable scaling factor. This model has a single algorithm and there is no need to make section of segments for elongation or shortening of the intermediate segments. The proposed model is about 23% more efficient than the previous model.
Flow fields could be of great interest in the study of sound propagation in aeroengines. For ducts with rigid boundaries, the fluid-resonant category may contribute significantly to unwanted noise. An understanding of the multi-modal propagation of acoustic waves in ducts is of practical interest for use in the control of noise in, for example, aero-engines, automotive exhaust and heating or ventilation systems. The purpose of our experiments was to test the acoustic energy transmission of duct modes based on studies carried out by the sound intensity technique. Sound intensity patterns in circular duct are discussed of modal energy analysis with particular reference to proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition. The authors try to justify some advantages of the sound intensity experimental research in this area. In the paper, the wide-band sound signal propagated from source approximated with loudspeaker in hard-walled duct is imaged using a sound intensity - based approach. For a simple duct geometry, the sound intensity field is examined visually and by performing a modal decomposition greater insight into the acoustic structures is obtained. The image of sound intensity fields below and above “cut-off” frequency region are found to compare acoustic modes which might resonate in duct.
The possibility of acoustic wave propagation in optical waveguides creates new prospects for simultaneous transmission of laser beams and ultrasonic waves. Combined laser-ultrasonic technology could be useful in e.g. surgical treatment. The article presents the results of experimental studies of transmission of ultrasonic wave in optical fibres, the core of which is doped by 7.5% of TiO2, using a sandwich-type transducer. It also presents amplitude characteristics of an ultrasonic signal propagated in the optical fibre. Authors studied the effect which the length of the fibre has on the achieved output signal amplitudes. They presented the relation of the output signal amplitude from a capacitive sensor to the power applied to the sandwich-type transducer. The obtained results were compared with the results produced when using an optical fibre with a core doped by 3% of GeO2, in order to select optical fibre suitable for simultaneous transmission of ultrasonic waves and laser rays.
In this paper the overview of the recent study on the rare-earth activated waveguides performed in the Optoelectronic Department of IMiO is presented. We reported on the development of rare earth-doped fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) glass fibers that allow a construction of a new family of visible and ultraviolet fiber lasers pumped by upconversion. Especially the performance of holmium devices is presented. The properties of laser planar waveguides obtained by the LPE process and the growth conditions of rare earths doped YAG layers are presented. In this paper we present also the theoretical study of the nonlinear operation of planar waveguide laser, as an example the microdisk Nd:YAG structure is discussed. We derived an approximate formula which relates the small signal gain in the Nd:YAG active medium and the laser characteristics, obtained for whispering-gallery modes and radial modes, to the output power and real parameters of the laser structure
The normal modes cannot be extracted even in the Pekeris waveguide when the source-receiver distance is very close. This paper introduces a normal mode extraction method based on a dedispersion transform (DDT) to solve this problem. The method presented here takes advantage of DDT, which is based on the waveguide invariant such that the dispersion associated with all of the normal modes is removed at the same time. After performing DDT on a signal received in the Pekeris waveguide, the waveform of resulting normal modes is very close to the source signal, each with different position and amplitude. Each normal mode can be extracted by determining its position and amplitude parameters by applying particle swarm optimization (PSO). The waveform of the extracted normal mode is simply the waveform of the source signal; the real waveform of the received normal mode can then be recovered by applying dispersion compensation to the source signal. The method presented needs only one receiver and is verified with experimental data
The paper presents the concept of a fully planar treeshaped antenna with quasi-fractal geometry. The shape of the proposed radiator is based on a multi-resonant structure. Developed planar tree has symmetrical branches with different length and is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with modified edge of the ground plane. The antenna of size 29 mm x25 mm has been designed on Taconic - RF-35 substrate (r = 3.5, tg= 0.0018, h = 0.762 mm). The paper shows simulated and measured characteristics of return loss, as well as measured radiation patterns. The proposed antenna could be a good candidate for broadband applications (for instance: wideband imaging for medical application and weather monitoring radars in satellite communication etc.)
Network on chip (NoC) is presented as a promising solution to face off the growing up of the data exchange in the multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC). However, the traditional NoC faces two main problems: the bandwidth and the energy consumption. To face off these problems, a new technology in MPSoC, namely, optical network-on-chip (ONoC) has been introduced which it uses the optical communication to guaranty a high performance in communication between cores. In addition, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is exploited in ONoC to reach a high rate of bandwidth. Nevertheless, the transparency nature of the ONoC components induce crosstalk noise to the optical signals, which it has a direct effect to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) then decrease the performance of the ONoC. In this paper, we proposed a new system to control these impairments in the network in order to detect and monitor crosstalk noise in WDM-based ONoC. Furthermore, the crosstalk monitoring system is a distributed hardware system designed and test with the different optical components according the various network topology used in ONoC. The register-transfer level (RTL) hardware design and implementation of this system can result in high reliability, scalability and efficiency with running time less than 20 ms.