The microstructures and mechanical properties of T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel weld joints with three welding consumables were investigated. Three types of welding materials ERNiCr-3, ERNiCrCoMo-1and T-304H were utilized to obtain dissimilar welds by using gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW). The results show that heat affect zone (HAZ) of T92 steel consists of coarse-grained and fine-grained tempered martensites. The microstructures of joints produced from ERNiCrCoMo-1 consist of equiaxed dendrite and columnar dendrite grains, which are more complicated than that of ERNiCr-3. In the tensile tests, joints constructed from ERNiCrCoMo-1 and T-304H met the ASME standard. The highest fracture energy was observed in specimens with the welding material ERNiCrCoMo-1. Ni content in weld seam of ERNiCrCoMo-1 was highest, which was above 40%. In conclusion, the nickel alloy ERNiCrCoMo-1 was the most suitable welding material for joints produced from T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel.
Use of welding technology for the repair of steel castings is particularly common in two areas. These include weld surfacing of protrusions that remained incomplete after casting, or filling the surface defects (cavities). These defects are more common for steel casting than for graphite cast iron, due to the lower fluidity of steel. This article describes a suitable technological process of repairing the defects on the casting using the welding technology. A specimen produced for this purpose was prepared by carving a groove into a cast steel plate 20 GL, which was then filled with a weld metal using MAG (135) technology. The following evaluation of the basic characteristics of the repaired site point to the suitability of the selected technological parameters of the repair procedure. Metallographic evaluation was carried out, further evaluation of mechanical properties by tensile test, bend test and Vickers hardness test. The proposed methodology for the evaluation repair of foundry defects in steel castings also meets the requirements for the approval of welding procedures in accordance with the relevant valid legislation.
Weld metal deposit (WMD) was carried out for standard MMA welding process. This welding method is still promising mainly due to the high amount of AF (acicular ferrite) and low amount of MAC (self-tempered martensite, retained austenite, carbide) phases in WMD. That structure corresponds with good impact toughness of welds at low temperature. Separate effect of these elements on the mechanical properties of welds is well known, but the combined effect of these alloy additions has not been analyzed so far. It was decided to check the total influence of nickel with a content between 1% to 3% and molybdenum with content from 0.1% up to 0.5%.
The rebuilding technologies are used to develop surface of ladle. Among many welding methods currently used to obtain surface layer without defects one of the most effective way of rebuilding is using metal arc welding. This additional material gives more possibilities to make expected quality of rebuild surface. Chemical composition, property and economic factors allow to use metal wire. Because of these reasons, solid wire gives opportunity to be wildly used as material to rebuild or repair the surface in different sectors of industry. The paper shows a few ways to rebuild the surface in the massive cast with the use of metal active gas welding for repair. The work presents studies of defect in the massive cast. It contains the pictures of microstructures and defects. The method of removing defects and the results of checking by visual and penetrant testing methods are shown. The paper describes the methodology of repair the ladle with metal active gas welding, preheating process and standards nondestructive testing method.
In this contribution an optical method of controlling the state of soft biological tissues in real time, exposed to laser radiation is discussed. The method is based on the assumption that the change dynamics of the amplitude of the scattered diagnostic radiation (λ = 635 nm) is compatible with the change dynamics of the tissue inner structure exposed to the Nd:YAG laser radiation (λ = 1064 nm). In this method the measurement of the tissue temperature is omitted. Exemplary results of the laboratory research on this method and an interpretation of the results are presented.
Aluminum 6082-T6 panels were joined by friction stir welding utilizing a bobbin tool. A thermal simulation of the process was developed based upon machine torque and the temperature dependent yield stress utilizing a slip factor and an assumed coefficient of friction. The torque-based approach was compared to another simulation established on the shear layer methodology (SLM), which does not require the slip factor or coefficient of friction as model inputs. The SLM simulation, however, only models heat generation from the leading edges of the tool. Ultimately, the two approaches yielded matching temperature predictions as both methodologies predicted the same overall total heat generation from the tool. A modified shear layer approach is proposed that adopts the flexibility and convenience of the shear layer method, yet models heat generation from all tool/workpiece interfaces.
In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using robotic laser welding method. Pre- and post-weld heat treatments were applied to laser welded joints. After welding stress relieving, solution heat treatment and ageing were also applied to preheated laser welded samples. Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of robotic laser welded joints were studied. Aged samples were found to be made of coarsened grains compared to microstructures of non-aged samples. There were increases in ductility and impact toughness of samples applied to ageing increased, while hardness and tensile strength of non-aged samples were higher. The highest value for tensile strength and for impact toughness in welded samples have been identified as 840 MPa and 27 J, respectively. Fractures in tensile test samples and base metal impact test samples took place in the form of ductile fracture, while laser welded impact test samples had fractures in the mode of intergranular fractures with either a quasi-cleavage type or tear ridges. EDS analysis carried out for all heat treatment conditions and welding parameters demonstrated that major element losses were not observed in base metal, HAZ and weld metal.
The AISI 430 stainless steel with ferritic structure is a low cost material for replacing austenitic stainless steel because of its higher yield strength, higher ductility and also better polarisation resistance in harsh environments. The applications of AISI 430 stainless steel are limited due to insignificant ductility and some undesirable changes of magnetic properties of its weld area with different microstructures. In this research, a study has been done to explore the effects of parameters of laser welding process, namely, welding speed, laser lamping current, and pulse duration, on the coercivity of laser welded AISI 430 stainless steel. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used used to measure the values of magnetic properties. Observation of microstructural changes and also texture analysis were implemented in order to elucidate the change mechanism of magnetic properties in the welded sections. The results indicated that the laser welded samples undergo a considerable change in magnetic properties. These changes were attributed to the significant grain growth which these grains are ideally oriented in the easiest direction of magnetization and also formation of some non-magnetic phases. The main effects of the above-mentioned factors and the interaction effects with other factors were evaluated quantitatively. The analysis considered the effect of lamping current (175-200 A), pulse duration (10-20 ms) and travel speed (2-10 mm/min) on the coercivity of laser welded samples.
The material selected for this investigation was low alloy steel weld metal deposit (WMD) after MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. The present investigation was aimed as the following tasks: analyze impact toughness of WMD in terms of micro-jet cooling parameters. Weld metal deposit (WMD) was first time carried out for MAG welding with micro-jet cooling of compressed air and gas mixture of argon and air. Until that moment only argon, helium and nitrogen and its gas mixture were tested for micro-jet cooling
This paper presents results of experimental research concerning the impact of an innovative method of micro-jet cooling on the padding weld performed with MIG welding. Micro-jet cooling is a novel method patented in 2011. It enables to steer the parameters of weld cooling in a precise manner. In addition, various elements which may e.g. enhance hardness or alter tribological properties can be entered into its top surface, depending on the applied cooling gas. The material under study was steel 20MnCr5, which was subject to the welding process with micro-jet cooling and without cooling. Nitrogen was used as a cooling gas. The main parameter of weld assessment was wear intensity. The tests were conducted in a tribological pin-on-disc type position. The following results exhibit growth at approximately 5% in wear resistance of padding welds with micro-jet cooling.
The paper presents the capabilities of welding techniques to creating properties of wear resistant high chromium cast iron alloy. The use of the right kind of welding sequence allows you to change the structure and properties of the obtained welds. Tests were conducted for one type of additive material in the form of self shielded core wire. In order to determine the effect of the type of welding sequence on the properties of welds performed welding using string bead and weave bead. The resulting weld was tested on hardness and research structure in an optical microscope. In the following studies have been made erosive tests wear of made hardfacing. String beads gave structure rich in carbides and harder about 270 HV of the weld with weave bead. Also, wear resistance was nearly twice as better for welds made with string beads. In the experiment a decisive role in the resistance to wear plays a high hardness of the deposit and the presence of carbides in its structure. Changes in the basic parameters of the deposition process allows for the formation of structure and properties of hardfacing welds in a wide range.
This work presents a numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by friction stir welding, FSW, process. The numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by FSW was created. The simulation uses thermomechanical coupled formulation. Th model required creation of finite elements representing sheets, stiffeners and welds, definition of material models and boundary conditions. The thermal model took into account heat conduction and convection assigned to appropriate elements of the structure. Time functions were applied to the description of a heat source movement. The numerical model included the stage of welding and the stage of releasing clamps. The output of the simulation are residual stresses and deformations occurring in the panel. Parameters of the global model (the panel model) were selected based on the local model (the single joint model), the experimental verification of the local model using the single joint and the geometry of the panel joints.
The results of experimental study of solid state joining of tungsten heavy alloy (THA) with AlMg3Mn alloy are presented. The aim of these investigations was to study the mechanism of joining two extremely different materials used for military applications. The continuous rotary friction welding method was used in the experiment. The parameters of friction welding process i.e. friction load and friction time in whole studies were changed in the range 10 to 30kN and 0,5 to 10s respectively while forging load and time were constant and equals 50kN and 5s. The results presented here concerns only a small part whole studies which were described elsewhere. These are focused on the mechanism of joining which can be adhesive or diffusion controlled. The experiment included macro- and microstructure observations which were supplemented with SEM investigations. The goal of the last one was to reveal the character of fracture surface after tensile test and to looking for anticipated diffusion of aluminum into THA matrix. The results showed that joining of THA with AlMg2Mn alloy has mainly adhesive character, although the diffusion cannot be excluded.
The gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welding behaviors of a magnesium matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles were examined in terms of microstructure characteristics and process efficiencies. This study focused on the effects of the GTAW process parameters (like welding current in the range of 100/200 A) on the size of the fusion zone (FZ). The analyses revealed the strong influence of the GTA welding process on the width and depth of the fusion zone and also on the refinement of the microstructure in the fusion zone. Additionally, the results of dendrite arm size (DAS) measurements were presented.
In this article examinations of hybrid welding technology (laser beam + MAG) of T-joints from thermomechanically worked high strength steel S700MC 10 mm thick were presented. Joints welded from one side and both sides were made. Carried examinations enabled to classify joints in quality level B according to ISO 12932 (Welding. Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel alloys. Quality levels for imperfections). In case of one sided welding with partial penetration with beam power of 8.5 kW 8 mm of penetration was achieved without noticeable distortion of web. Double sided joints were characterized with correct geometry. Joint metal is bainitic-ferritic in structure and its hardness rises about 40 HV1 in comparison to base metal hardness (280 HV1). In HAZ a slight softening of material in comparison to base metal is present.
The automated laser welding process of 2.0 mm thick sheets of AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated. The disk laser with a beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used for bead-on-plate and next for autogenous butt joints welding. The influence of basic welding parameters such as laser power, welding speed, and focal spot position on fusion zone configuration, quality of joints, microstructure changes, and microhardness distribution across the joints were analysed and presented in this paper. The results have shown that stiffening of the 2.0 mm thick sheets is crucial for providing high quality and reproducibility of butt joint in a case of AISI 304 stainless steel due to relatively low thermal conductivity and simultaneously high thermal expansion. Relevant drop of microhardness in the weld zone was observed. The mean value of microhardness of the base metal was 230 HV0.1, while the microhardness in fusion zone of the test welds was ranged from 130 to 170 HV0.1. Additionally the microstructure changes in the weld metal and also in the heat affected zone of test joints is described.
In the present study, butt joints of aluminum (Al) 8011-H18 and pure copper (Cu) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and the effect of plunge depth on surface morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The welds were produced by varying the plunge depth in a range from 0.1 mm to 0.25 mm. The defect-free joints were obtained when the Cu plate was fixed at the advancing side. It was found that less plunging depth gives better tensile properties compare to higher plunging depth because at higher plunging depth local thinning occurs at the welded region. Good tensile properties were achieved at plunge depth of 0.2 mm and the tensile strength was found to be higher than the strength of the Al (weaker of the two base metals). Microstructure study revealed that the metal close to copper side in the Nugget Zone (NZ) possessed lamellar alternating structure. However, mixed structure of Cu and Al existed in the aluminum side of NZ. Higher microhardness values were witnessed at the joint interfaces resulting from plastic deformation and the presence of intermetallics.