The aim of this paper is to analyse the welfare consequences of the processes of liberalisation of trade between asymmetric states in terms of the various size sand effectiveness of their economies and the type of international exchange. These characteristics ultimately define the distribution of benefits from the liberalisation of international trade. When it is inter-industry or vertical intra-industry and barriers in trade are smaller than the difference in the effectiveness of the economies, the trade liberalisation undoubtedly contributes to improved social welfare, regardless of the level of effectiveness and the size of the economy. In the situation, however, of horizontal intra-industry trade, changes in the welfares of asymmetric countries, caused by their progressing trade liberalisation, depend on the sizes and effectiveness of their economies. The welfare of society in either a very big and ineffective or in a small and very ineffective country could even decrease in such a situation. This is the case when the increase in consumers’ surplus is not sufficient to compensate for the decreasing profits of firms.
The main goal of this article is to compare the opinions of citizens from four European countries (Germany, Great Britain, Spain and Poland) regarding basic income in the broader context, among other things, of welfare regimes these countries represent. Statistical analyses of the Europeans’ attitudes towards basic income are based on interviews carried out in 28 European Union countries. Four countries, representing four different types of welfare regimes that can be found in the literature (the Nordic model has been excluded due to the sample size), and differing in economic welfare as well as historical experiences in regard to socio-economic system formation, have been selected for further analysis. Our analysis is based on special use of the single posthoc test with the Bonferroni adjustment for evaluating cross-country differences in basic income support and use of logistic regression for verifying the within-country impact of particular effects on basic income attitudes. The results of our analysis do not confirm that either the type of welfare regime or the level of social services in particular countries have a significant impact on attitudes toward basic income attitudes. However, we found the clear and direct impact of basic income awareness on supporting the programme.
In this paper a novel non-linear optimization problem is formulated to maximize the social welfare in restructured environment with generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC). This paper presents a methodology to optimally allocate the reactive power by minimizing voltage deviation at load buses and total transmission power losses so as to maximize the social welfare. The conventional active power generation cost function is modified by combining costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors and total power losses to it. The formulated objectives are optimized individually and simultaneously as multi-objective optimization problem, while satisfying equality, in-equality, practical and device operational constraints. A new optimization method, based on two stage initialization and random distribution processes is proposed to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach on IEEE-30 bus system, and the detailed analysis is carried out.