By means of small wind turbines, it is possible to create distributed sources of electricity useful in areas with good wind conditions. Sometimes, however, it is possible to use small wind turbines also in areas characterized by lower average wind speeds during the year. At the small wind turbine design stage, various types of technical solutions to increase the speed of the wind stream, as well as to optimally orientate it, can be applied. The methods for increasing the efficiency of wind energy conversion into electricity in the case of a wind turbine include: the use of a diffuser shielding the turbine rotor and the optimization of blades mounted on the turbine rotor. In the paper, the influence of the diffuser and rotor blades geometry on the efficiency of an exemplary wind turbine for exploitation in the West Pomeranian Province is investigated. The analyses are performed for three types of the diffuser and for three types of rotor blades. Based on them, the most optimal shapes of the diffuser and blades are selected due to the efficiency of the wind turbine. For the turbine with the designed diffuser, calculations of the output power for the assumed different values of the average annual wind speed and the constant Betz power factor and the specified generator efficiency are made. In all the analyzed cases, the amount of energy that can be generated by the turbine during the year is also estimated. Important practical conclusions are formulated on the basis of these calculations. In the final part of the paper, a 3D model of the wind turbine with the diffuser and rotor blades chosen based on earlier analyses is presented. As a material for the diffuser and rotor blades, glass fiber type A is applied. By means of calculations using the finite element method, the limit displacement of the turbine structure under the influence of a hurricane wind are determined. Based on these calculations, the correctness of the modelled small wind turbine structure has been demonstrated.
Increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources (RES) plays a key role in the sustainable and more competitive development of the energy sector. Among the renewable energy sources, the greatest increase can be observed in the case of solar and wind power generation. It should be noted that RES are an increasingly important elements of the power systems and that their share in energy production will continue to rise. On the other hand the development of variable generation sources (wind and solar energy) poses a serious challenge for power systems as operators of unconventional power plants are unable to provide information about the forecasted production level and the energy generated in a given period is sometimes higher than the demand for energy in all of the power systems. Therefore, with the development of RES, a considerable amount of the generated energy is wasted. The solution is energy storage, which makes it possible to improve the management of power systems. The objective of this article is to present the concept of electricity storage in the form of the chemical energy of hydrogen (Power to Gas) in order to improve the functioning of the power system in Poland. The expected growth in the installed capacity of wind power plants will result in more periods in which excess energy will be produced. In order to avoid wasting large amounts of energy, the introduction of storage systems is necessary. An analysis of the development of wind power plants demonstrates that the Power to Gas concept can be developed in Poland, as indicated by the estimated installed capacity and the potential amount of energy to be generated. In view of the above, the excess electricity will be available for storage in the form of chemical energy of hydrogen, which
The dynamic development of wind power in recent years has generated the demand for production forecasting tools in wind farms. The data obtained from mathematical models is useful both for wind farm owners and distribution and transmission system operators. The predictions of production allow the wind farm operator to control the operation of the turbine in real time or plan future repairs and maintenance work in the long run. In turn, the results of the forecasting model allow the transmission system operator to plan the operation of the power system and to decide whether to reduce the load of conventional power plants or to start the reserve units. The presented article is a review of the currently applied methods of wind power generation forecasting. Due to the nature of the input data, physical and statistical methods are distinguished. The physical approach is based on the use of data related to atmospheric conditions, terrain, and wind farm characteristics. It is usually based on numerical weather prediction models (NWP). In turn, the statistical approach uses historical data sets to determine the dependence of output variables on input parameters. However, the most favorable, from the point of view of the quality of the results, are models that use hybrid approaches. Determining the best model turns out to be a complicated task, because its usefulness depends on many factors. The applied model may be highly accurate under given conditions, but it may be completely unsuitable for another wind farm.
In this paper a system of a grid side and a generator side converters, both working with a common capacitor, is presented. The 6-phase asymmetric inset-type SMPMSM generator is used. A large pole pair number of this generator enables a gearless wind turbine operation. The fundamental and 3rd harmonic cooperation is used to increase the generator performance. This is accomplished by means of the 3rd harmonic current injection. For that reason the generator side converter must have a neutral connection.
In renewable systems, there may be conditions that can be either network error or power transmission line and environmental conditions such as when the wind speed is unbalanced and the wind turbine is connected to the grid. In this case, the control system is not damaged and will remain stable in the power transmission system. Voltage stability studies on an independent wind turbine at fault time and after fixing the error is one of the topics that can strengthen the future of independent collections. At the time of the fault, the network current increases dramatically, resulting in a higher voltage drop. Hence the talk of fast voltage recovery during error and after fixing the error and protection of rotor and grid side converters against the fault current and also protection against rising DC voltage (which sharply increases during error) is highly regarded. So, several improvements have been made to the construction of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) turbine such as: a) error detection system, b) DC link protection, c) crow bar circuit, d) block of the rotor and stator side converters, e) injecting reactive power during error, f) nonlinear control design for turbine blades, g) tuning and harmonization of controllers used to keep up the power quality and to stabilize the system output voltage in the power grid. First, the dynamic models of a wind turbine, gearbox, and DFIG are presented. Then the controllers are modeled. The results of the simulation have been validated in MATLAB/Simulink.
Many parts of remote locations in the world are not electrified even in this Advanced Technology Era. To provide electricity in such remote places renewable hybrid energy systems are very much suitable. In this paper PV/Wind/Battery Hybrid Power System (HPS) is considered to provide an economical and sustainable power to a remote load. HPS can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as Maximum Power Point (MPP). Fuzzy Logic based MPPT (FLMPPT) control method has been implemented for both Solar and Wind Power Systems. FLMPPT control technique is implemented to generate the optimal reference voltage for the first stage of DC-DC Boost converter in both the PV and Wind energy system. The HPS is tested with variable solar irradiation, temperature, and wind speed. The FLMPPT method is compared with P&O MPPT method. The proposed method provides a good maximum power operation of the hybrid system at all operating conditions. In order to combine both sources, the DC bus voltage is made constant by employing PI Controllers for the second stage of DC-DC Buck-Boost converter in both Solar and Wind Power Systems. Battery Bank is used to store excess power from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and to provide continuous power to load when the RES power is less than load power. A SPWM inverter is designed to convert DC power into AC to supply three phase load. An LC filter is also used at the output of inverter to get sinusoidal current from the PWM inverter. The entire system was modeled and simulated in Matlab/Simulink Environment. The results presented show the validation of the HPS design.