The 802.11ax standard final specification is expected in 2019, however first parameters are just released. The target of the new standard is four times improvement of the average throughput within the given area. This standard is dedicated for usage in dense environment such as stadiums, means of municipal communication, conference halls and others. The main target is to support many users at the same time with the single access point. The question arises if the new standard will have higher throughput then previous ones in the single user mode. The author calculated the maximal theoretical throughput of the 802.11ax standard and compared the results with the throughput of older 802.11 standards such as 802.11n and 802.11ac. The new he-wifi-network example included in the ns-3.27 release of the NS-3 simulator was used to simulate the throughput between the access point and the user terminal. The results indicate that in some conditions the 802.11ac standard has higher throughput than the new 802.11ax standard.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has been proposed as a solution to reducing the huge cost of network upgrade while providing the spectral and energy efficiency needed for the new generation cellular networks. In order to reduce the interference that occur in C-RAN and maximize throughput, this paper proposes a sequentially distributed coalition formation (SDCF) game in which players, in this case the remote radio heads (RRHs), can sequentially join multiple coalitions to maximize their throughput. Contrary to overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game where players contribute fractions of their limited resources to different coalitions, the SDCF game offers better stability by allowing sequential coalition formation depending on the availability of resources and therefore providing a balance between efficient spectrum use and interference management. An algorithm for the proposed model is developed based on the merge-only method. The performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of stability, complexity and convergence to final coalition structure is also investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed SDCF game did not only maximize the throughput in the C-RAN, but it also shows better performances and larger capabilities to manage interference with increasing number of RRHs compared to existing methods.
An original wireless sensor network for vibration measurements was designed. Its primary purpose is modal analysis of vibrations of large structures. A number of experiments have been performed to evaluate the system, with special emphasis on the influence of different effects on simultaneity of data acquired from remote nodes, which is essential for modal analysis. One of the issues is that quartz crystal oscillators, which provide time reading on the devices, are optimized for use in the room temperature and exhibit significant frequency variations if operated outside the 20–30°C range. Although much research was performed to optimize algorithms of synchronization in wireless networks, the subject of temperature fluctuations was not investigated and discussed in proportion to its significance. This paper describes methods used to evaluate data simultaneity and some algorithms suitable for its improvement in small to intermediate size ad-hoc wireless sensor networks exposed to varying temperatures often present in on-site civil engineering measurements.
The data aggregation process of wireless sensor networks faces serious security problems. In order to defend the internal attacks launched by captured nodes and ensure the reliability of data aggregation, a secure data aggregation mechanism based on constrained supervision is proposed for wireless sensor network, which uses the advanced LEACH clustering method to select cluster heads. Then the cluster heads supervise the behaviors of cluster members and evaluate the trust values of nodes according to the communication behavior, data quality and residual energy. Then the node with the highest trust value is selected as the supervisor node to audit the cluster head and reject nodes with low trust values. Results show that the proposed mechanism can effectively identify the unreliable nodes, guarantee the system security and prolong the network lifetime.
In this study, the concepts of simultaneous user association and resource allocation in non-orthogonal multiple access systems have been investigated. Subscribers are randomly distributed in them. In the paper, a novel cooperative energy harvesting model is introduced so that user equipment near to the base stations acts as relay for further subscribers. In order to consider the local limitations of alternative energy resources, it was assumed that alternative energy would be shared among the base stations by means of the dynamic grid network. In this architecture, non-orthogonal resource allocation and user association frameworks should be reconfigured because conventional schemes use orthogonal multiple access. Hence, this paper suggests a novel approach to joint optimum cooperative power allocation and user association techniques to achieve a maximum degree of energy efficiency for the whole system in which the quality of experience parameters are assumed to be bounded during multi-cell multicast sessions. The model was also modified to develop joint multi-layered resource control and user association that can distinguish the service pattern in cooperative energy heterogeneous systems with non-orthogonal multiple access to obtain more resource optimality than in the current approaches. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is confirmed by numerical results. Also, the results reveal that non-orthogonal multiple access can provide greater energy efficiency than the conventional orthogonal multiple access approaches such as e.g. the MAX-SINR scheme.