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Number of results: 18
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Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine rumination time (RT) and the subsequent milk yield, along with trait changes during lactation dependent on the reproductive status of dairy cows. 728 cows were selected for evaluation in regards to 1–150 days of milk production (DIM). According to their period of lactation and reproductive status, the cows were selected for the following groups: Inseminated (1–35 days after insemination, n=182), Open (45–90 days after calving, n=126), Fresh (1–44 days after calving, n=45); Not-pregnant (>35–60 days after inse- mination and not-pregnant, n=55); Pregnant (35–60 days after insemination and pregnant (n=320). The animals were milked with Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The daily milk yield, rumination time, bodyweight, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, somatic cell count and gynecological status date) were collected from the Lely T4C management program for analysis. We estimated the lowest productivity in the pregnant cows, where the average milk yield was 28.72 kg and the highest productivity in the fresh cow (p<0.001) (Table 1). The longest rumina- tion time was determined for the inseminated cows, statistically significantly higher at 9.92% (p<0.001) than in the non-pregnant cows, whose rumination time was the shortest. The statisti- cally reliably RT positively correlated with productivity (r=0.384, p<0.001) of the cows (from r=0.302 in the second lactation and r=0.471 in the first lactation to r=0.561 in multiparous cows; p<0.001). Rumination time, according to groups of cows by milk yield, had a tendency to increase (2.14 times) from 202.0± 87.38 (in cows with a productivity of less than 10 kg milk) to 431.6±33.91 (in cows with a milk yield higher than 50 kg) by the linear regression equation: y = 38.02x + 232, R² = 0.721 (p<0.001). The relation between the gynecological status and milk fat-protein ratio of the cows was statistically significant (χ2=2.974, df= 8, p <0.0001). The longest rumination time was determined for the inseminated cows (1 – 35 days after insemination), and the shortest for the not-pregnant cows (>35 – 60 days after insemination and not-pregnant). We can conclude that rumination time, subsequent yield, and milk trait change depends on the period of lactation and reproductive status of a dairy cow.
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Abstract

Article published in Science, 2012 by Jennifer A. Doudna, Emmanuelle Charpentier and their team presented a novel tool named as CRISPR/Cas9. The original CRISPR/Cas9 tool and the whole system developed from it since then allow making precise changes in the nucleotide sequence in the defined locus of the genome. The article presents the already known as well the potential future applications of the system for improvement of cultivated plants. The separate section is devoted to present the background of the Court of Justice decision C-528/16. Discussed are the far reaching negative consequences of this, based not on the merit decision, for the future of European green biotechnology.
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Abstract

Inflammation together with lipolysis and ketogenesis in early lactation can cause low productivity and may be harmful to the cow health. The objective of the study was to determine if ketoprofen treatment in the first days following parturition would positively affect the milk production and whether it was associated with the metabolic and inflammatory response. The study was conducted on 30 cows divided into two groups of 15 cows each. The experimental group was treated with 3 mg × kg. bw. -1 ketoprofen for three consecutive days after parturition. The blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment and in the first and second week postpartum and they were analyzed for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), tumour necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) and haptoglobin. The results suggested that ketoprofen-treated cows with a higher milk production had a significantly lower concentration of NEFA, BHB, TNF-a and haptoglobin in the first and second week postpartum. No differences were found in the control group in metabolic status regardless of the achieved level of milk production. Ketoprofen administration in postpartum cows can enhance the milk yield. The higher milk yield in the experimental group might be associated with a lower degree of lipolysis, ketogenesis and reduced inflammatory response in the first two weeks postpartum.
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Abstract

The article presents the results of tests on SHC-40 hydraulic props equipped with two types of valve blocks: standard (with spring steel cylinder) and BZG-2FS (with gas spring). The research was conducted using impact mass of 4,000 kg and with extreme dynamic load of free fall impact mass of 20,000 kg released from different heights h. The dynamic tests involved a camera with the speed of image capture up to 1,200 frames/sec, which made it possible to register the stream of liquid at the dynamic load and to determine the valve opening time. The study conducted on SHC-40 NHR10 props equipped with two types of valve blocks: a standard and the BZG-2FS fast acting relief, showed that the prop with the BZG-2FS block is more suitable and more effective in the case of areas with high risk of mining tremors and rapid stress relief of a seam. Research methodology developed in the Central Mining Institute combines digital recording technique of pressure in a prop and fast registration of the images, and allows to acquire more accurate analysis of dynamic phenomena in the prop during testing.
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Abstract

Evolutionary computing and algorithms are well known tools of optimisation that are utilized for various areas of analogue electronic circuits design and diagnosis. This paper presents the possibility of using two evolutionary algorithms - genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies - for the purpose of analogue circuits yield and cost optimisation. Terms: technologic and parametric yield are defined. Procedures of parametric yield optimisation, such as a design centring, a design tolerancing, a design centring with tolerancing, are introduced. Basics of genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategies are presented, differences between these two algorithms are highlighted, certain aspects of implementation are discussed. Effectiveness of both algorithms in parametric yield optimisation has been tested on several examples and results have been presented. A share of evolutionary algorithms computation cost in a total optimisation cost is analyzed.
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Abstract

Energy conservation is an important step to overcome the energy crisis and prevent environmental pollution. Casting industry is a major consumer of energy among all the industries. The distribution of electrical energy consumed in all the departments of the foundry is presented. Nearly 70% of the energy is consumed especially in the melting department alone. Production of casting involves number of process variables. Even though lot of efforts has been taken to prevent defects, it occurs in the casting due to variables present in the process. This paper focuses the energy saving by improving the casting yield and by reducing the rejections. Furthermore an analysis is made on power consumption for melting in the induction furnace to produce defective castings and improvement in the casting yield. The energy consumed to produce defective castings in all other departments is also presented. This analysis reveals that without any further investment in the foundry, it is possible to save 3248.15 kWh of energy by reducing the rejections as well as by improving the casting yield. The redesign of the feeding system and the reduced major rejection shrinkage in the body casting improved the casting yield from 56% to 72% and also the effective yield from 12.89% to 66.80%.
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the association between subclinical acidosis (SARA) and subclinical ketosis (SCK) with biomarkers from an automatic milking system (AMS) measuring in relation to rumination time (RT), milk yield (MY), bodyweight (BW), milk temperature, the milk fat-to-protein ratio, and the electrical conductivity of milk at the udder quarters-level which can be read in fresh dairy cows. During the course of the study, all of the fresh dairy cows (n=711) were examined according to a general clinical investigation plan. The cows were selected for 1-30 days of milk (DIM) and were milked using Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. Rumination time shows a statistically significant positive correlation with milk yield (milk temperature) and is negatively correlated with the fat and protein ratio. Healthy cows demonstrated the highest level of rumination time and the lowest milk temperature. The average BW for these cows was 1.64% lower than for the SARA group and the BW kg was 2.10% higher than SCK cows. MY was 14.01% lower in comparison with SARA and 6.42% higher in comparison with SCK. According to these results, some biomarkers from the AMS have an association with SARA and SCK. However, further research with a higher number of cows is needed to confirm this conclusion.
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Abstract

Plant tissue culture techniques have become an integral part of progress in plant science research due to the opportunity offered for close study of detailed plant development with applications in food production through crop improvement, secondary metabolites production and conservation of species. Because the techniques involve growing plants under controlled conditions different from their natural outdoor environment, the plants need adjustments in physiology, anatomy and metabolism for successful in vitro propagation. Therefore, the protocol has to be optimized for a given species or genotype due to the variability in physiological and growth requirement. Developing the protocol is hampered by several physiological and developmental aberrations in the anatomy and physiology of the plantlets, attributed to in vitro culture conditions of high humidity, low light levels and hetero- or mixotrophic conditions. Some of the culture-induced anomalies become genetic, and the phenotype is inherited by clonal progenies while others are temporary and can be corrected at a later stage of protocol development through changes in anatomy, physiology and metabolism. The success of protocols relies on the transfer of plantlets to field conditions which has been achieved with many species through stages of acclimatization, while with others it remains a challenging task. This review discusses various adjustments in nutrition, physiology and anatomy of micro-propagated plants and field grown ones, as well as anomalies induced by the in vitro culture conditions.
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Abstract

The mining of hard coal deposits at increasingly greater depth leads to an increase in hazards related to the loss of stability of steel arch supports as a result of excessive static and dynamic loads. Camber beam reinforcement via rockbolting is often utilised in order to improve the stability of the yielding steel arch support. This article presents the results of comparative bench tests of the ŁP10/V36-type steel arch support, tested with and without reinforcement by means of self-drilling bolts with drunken R25 threads, using short joists formed from V32 and V25 sections. It also presents the results of comparative tests of the ŁPP10/4/V29/I-type steel arch support, tested with and without reinforcement by means of rock bolts with trapezoidal Tr22/13 threads, using short joists formed from V25 sections. The obtained test results, in the form of load courses and work values of the steel arch and mixed (arches and rock bolts) support systems, demonstrate that the utilisation of mixed support may significantly improve the stability of workings, particularly immediately after they are driven. A mixed support system quickly achieves its maximum load capacity together with a significant increase in its work value. It may thus prevent the stratification of the rocks surrounding the working, and therefore better utilise the self-supporting capacity of the rock mass. As evidenced by the test results, the mixed support work may be as much as 3.5 times as great compared to the steel arch support at the beginning of the height reduction process initiated by loading – i.e. until its reduction by a presupposed value of 100 mm.
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Abstract

New solutions in plant protection applications are still highly desirable. Aiming at higher efficiency, environmental safety and profitability of production which, in addition to reducing the costs of the application of plant protection products, limits the destruction of soil structure combined use of agrochemicals seems to be one of the most important method in modern agriculture. In 2016 and 2017, the Plant Protection Institute – National Research Institute in Poznań, Poland, conducted field experiments on the possibility of combining two popular herbicides used to control monocotyledonous weeds: pinoxaden and fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, with a two-component plant growth and development regulator (mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium) on KWS Ozon winter wheat. The tested substances were applied at the BBCH 24 stage of winter wheat – herbicide only, and at the BBCH 31 stage – a mix of herbicides with a plant growth and development regulator. Regardless of the method of application of pinoxaden (herbicide only or mixed), high effectiveness of Apera spica-venti control was obtained in both years of the study. The mix of pinoxaden with mepiquat chloride and prohexadione calcium reduced the wheat crop height to a similar extent as separate application of the substances. The combined application of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl with mepiquat chloride improved the effectiveness of wheat crop height control. The method of application of the substances had no significant effect on winter wheat yield. Grain yields harvested from plots treated with the above substances were significantly higher than control only in the case of high weed infestation of winter wheat. The technological value of wheat grain depended on the year of study, while the method of application did not have a significant impact on the evaluated parameters.
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Abstract

Clethodim herbicide (Cle) and three Trichoderma strains (Tri) were applied either alone or in combination (Cle + Tri) for controlling weeds, root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) and Rhizoctonia root rot disease (Rhizoctonia solani) as well as for evaluating their effects on total microbial count in the rhizosphere and the number of Rhizobium nodules on roots in two faba bean cultivars cultivated in naturally heavily infested fields. The evaluated characters were very similar for the two tested cultivars (Nubariya 1 and Sakha 3). Treatment with Cle alone highly reduced the fresh and dry matter of tested weeds (Amaranthus viridis, Cynodon dactylon and Cenchrus ciliaris), followed by Cle + Tri and Tri alone. Cle + Tri highly reduced nematode parameters viz. numbers of J2 in soil or roots, females, eggs, galls and egg-masses when compared with each treatment alone. Tri alone caused a great decrease in Rhizoctonia root rot infection, followed by Cle + Tri and Cle alone. Total microbial count and Rhizobium nodules were affected only with Cle treatment. Plant growth parameters (shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight and numbers of branches and leaves) and yield parameters (fresh pod and dry weight, seed number per pod, seed weight and ash pod weight of plant) were greatly improved for Cle + Tri treatments when compared with either Tri or Cle alone.
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Abstract

The article describes how to identify the boundary and yield surface for hypoplastic constitutive equations proposed by Wu, Gudehus and Bauer. It is shown how to identify and plot the surfaces for any equation in this class. Calculation errors are analyzed characteristic for applied set of numerical formulas. In the paper there are computer links to the source code prepared in the MATLAB system, based on instructions in the article. A sample consitutive domains are shown, plotted using the attached computer program.
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Abstract

The goal of this work is to compare different constitutive models in the nonlinear static characteristic analysis of asphalt concrete core dams. The Duncan E-μmodel, Duncan E-B model and double-yield-surface model are three major constitutive models in the nonlinear static prediction of earth-rockfill dam. In this paper, an earth-rockfill dam with asphalt concrete core-wall in an actual hydraulic engineering is employed to compare the three models. The finite element model of the core-wall dam is proposed. Nonlinear static analysis of the dam is carried out and the static characteristics are obtained to study the differences generated from different constitutive models. Numerical results show that both the stress extremum and the stress distribution of dam body with three different models are coincident one another. In the deformation analysis of dam body and core-wall, the maximum values of sedimentation with the Duncan E-μmodel and the Duncan E-B model, which are greater than the value with double-yield-surface model, are close to the practical test data though the deformation distributions with three models are in good agreement. But, the analysis results of core-wall stress with double-yield-surface model are proper and more reasonable than the other models.
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Abstract

The article reports the results of research on the influence of the alternate intermittent deformation of specimens by a torsion method on the Bauschinger effect in the Zr-1%Nb zirconium-based alloy. Tests were carried out using an STD 812 torsion plastometer. Based on the tests carried out, diagrams have been plotted, which represent the influence of the pre-deformation magnitude, the temperature of heat treatment prior to deformation, and deformation rate on the variation in the values of the flow stress and yield strength of the alloy under study. Conditions have been defined, in which larger magnitudes of plastic deformation of ­Zr-1Nb% alloy material can be used during its cold plastic working.
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Abstract

In the paper the results of experimental research of the process of flow forming of cylindrical drawpieces were presented. The drawpieces were made of the 3.1 mm thick AMS 5596 sheet by drawing process. Tests were performed on two-roller metal spinning machine of a vertical axis Leifeld SFC 800 V500. The main purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between relative thickness reduction and the mechanical properties of tested material. Knowledge of these dependencies is especially useful in designing machines’ components manufactured by flow forming, in the selection of parameters of realization of this technological process as well. Mechanical properties were determined on the basis of uniaxial tensile of the micro samples obtained from the drawpieces: (I) after cold flow forming, (II) after cold flow forming and in-process heat treatment. Obtained results were shown graphically in the diagrams and their analysis was carried out. In addition, the microstructure of the sheet material tested after drawing and flow forming is presented.
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Abstract

The effectiveness of cast iron spheroidization with FeSiMg master alloy by the traditional method and using a reaction chamber placed in the cavity of foundry mould was compared. The method of cast iron treatment in mould cavity using a reaction chamber is an innovative technology developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The effectiveness of the spheroidization process carried out by both methods was checked on a series of test castings. The article also presents the results of metallographic examinations and mechanical testing, including the discussion of magnesium yield and its assimilation rate.
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