“Mineral deposit model”, “deposit modelling” are the terms commonly used, although imprecise. This is often identified as the application of computerized methods to the elaboration and presentation of geological information, in particular for the mining design. Deposit modelling is the mode of presentation of deposit features, which in the meaning of the authors of such presentation, describes the deposit features between the points of observations as best as possible. Deposit modelling has a long history (XVI-XVII centuries), however such a term was not used. Varied methods of cartographic presentation of deposits and their features were proposed. The progress in the presentation of the deposit in space using isolines maps has led to the separation of methods of deposits geometrisation. Over time, a simple mathematical statistics method was used to describe the deposit parameters, followed by geostatistical methods. Some of them were however not commonly used as too troublesome. The computer based approach to the presentation of geological data has an unquestionable value but is accompanied by the possibility of inappropriate formalized and erroneous interpretations and a presentation as to whether the basic rules of geological knowledge were neglected. Deposits modeling is a conceptual task and cannot be fully automated.
Krajowa energetyka od lat oparta jest na węglu kamiennym i brunatnym. Kilkudziesięcioprocentowy udział elektrowni opalanych węglem kamiennym i brunatnym w strukturze wytwórczej wymusza konieczność zakupu tych paliw do produkcji energii elektrycznej w otoczeniu zmiennych cen surowców, kształtowanych na międzynarodowym rynku. Ceny węgla kamiennego są wypadkową wielu zmiennych i zależą nie tylko od światowej sytuacji geopolitycznej czy ekonomicznej, ale mogą być również skutkiem klęsk żywiołowych. Ceny na rynkach międzynarodowych są ze sobą ściśle powiązane. Szczególnie wysokość cen kształtowanych przez największych producentów i eksporterów (między innymi przez Indonezję, Australię czy Chiny) mają wpływ na ceny surowca na rynku europejskim. Są one także punktem odniesienia dla cen węgla brunatnego na lokalnych rynkach. W niniejszym artykule przeanalizowano wpływ zmienności cen węgla kamiennego na rynkach światowych na zmienność krajowych cen paliw (kosztów zakupu) wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii elektrycznej, cen sprzedaży energii przez jednostki wytwórcze oraz cen energii elektrycznej dla odbiorców końcowych. Sprawdzono także czy zmienność cen węgla kamiennego ma wpływ na zmienność cen energii dla przedsiębiorstw przyłączonych do sieci na parametrach wysokiego napięcia i dla gospodarstw domowych. Dodatkowo zbadano także korelację pomiędzy analizowanymi parami zmiennych. Niniejszą analizę wpływu wybranych zmiennych przeprowadzono przy użyciu podstawowych miar statystycznych. W drugiej części badań przeprowadzona zostanie poszerzona analiza wzajemnego wpływu (przyczynowości) zmiany analizowanych parametrów z wykorzystaniem zaawansowanych narzędzi statystycznych.
The paper analyses the influence of seasonal temperature variations on fatigue strength of flexible and semi-rigid pavement structures chosen for KR4 traffic flow category. The durability of pavement determined assuming a yearly equivalent temperature of 10˚C and assuming season-dependent equivalent temperatures was compared. Durability of pavement was determined with the use of Asphalt Institute Method and French Method. Finite Element Method was applied in order to obtain the strain and stress states by the means of ANSYS Mechanical software. Obtained results indicate a considerable drop in pavement durability if seasonal temperature variations are considered (up to 64% for flexible pavements and up to 80% for semi-rigid pavements). Durability obtained by the French Method presents lower dependence on the analysed aspect.
The article describes the influence of anomalous values and local variability on the structure of variability and the estimation of deposit parameters. The research was carried out using statistical and geostatistical methods based on the Pb accumulation index in the shale series in part of the Cu-Ag ore deposit, LGCD (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). The authors recommend the use of a geostatistical tool, the so-called semivariogram cloud to determine the anomalous values. Anomalous values determined by the geostatistical method and removed from the dataset have resulted in a significant reduction of the relative variability of data, which is still very large in the case of the analyzed parameter or parameters with similar statistical features such as extreme variability and strongly asymmetric distribution. Calculations of the resources of this element can be treated only as estimates and formally classified to category D. The hypothetical assumption of the absence of sampling errors, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of local variation, leads to a certain reduction of the median error of resource estimates. However, they are still high (> 35%). This is due to the large natural variability of the accumulation index of Pb on the local observation scale. The current method for collecting samples from mine workings of the Cu-Ag deposits in the Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), aimed at the proper assessment of copper resources, the Cu content, and at estimating the quality of copper output, makes it impossible to achieve an accuracy of estimates of Pb resources similar to that obtained for the main metal. Theoretically, this effect can be achieved by a strong concentration of the sample collection points and thanks to a multiple increase in the samples weight; this, however, is unrealistic for both economic and organizational reasons. It is therefore to be expected that the assessment of Pb resources and other accompanying elements of similar statistical features (e.g. As), located in parts of the deposit where mining activities are to be carried out, will be subject to significant errors.
One of the basic parameters which describes road traffic is Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT). Its accurate determination is possible only on the basis of data from the continuous measurement of traffic. However, such data for most road sections is unavailable, so AADT must be determined on the basis of short periods of random measurements. This article presents different methods of estimating AADT on the basis of daily traffic (VOL), and includes the traditional Factor Approach, developed Regression Models and Artificial Neural Network models. As explanatory variables, quantitative variables (VOL and the share of heavy vehicles) as well as qualitative variables (day of the week, month, level of AADT, the cross-section, road class, nature of the area, spatial linking, region of Poland and the nature of traffic patterns) were used. Based on comparisons of the presented methods, the Factor Approach was identified as the most useful.
Buckling of the stiffened flange of a thin-walled member is reduced to the buckling analysis of the cantilever plate, elastically restrained against rotation, with the free edge stiffener, which is susceptible to deflection.Longitudinal stress variation is taken into account using a linear function and a 2nd degree parabola. Deflection functions for the plate and the stiffener, adopted in the study, made it possible to model boundary conditions and different buckling modes at the occurrence of longitudinal stress variation. Graphs of buckling coefficients are determined for different load distributions as a function of the elastic restraint coefficient and geometric details of the stiffener. Exemplary buckling modes are presented.
Thin-walled bars currently applied in metal construction engineering belong to a group of members, the cross-section resistance of which is affected by the phenomena of local or distortional stability loss. This results from the fact that the cross-section of such a bar consists of slender-plate elements. The study presents the method of calculating the resistance of the cross-section susceptible to local buckling which is based on the loss of stability of the weakest plate (wall). The "Critical Plate" (CP) was identified by comparing critical stress in cross-section component plates under a given stress condition. Then, the CP showing the lowest critical stress was modelled, depending on boundary conditions, as an internal or cantilever element elastically restrained in the restraining plate (RP). Longitudinal stress distribution was accounted for by means of a constant, linear or non-linear (acc. the second degree parabola) function. For the critical buckling stress, as calculated above, the local critical resistance of the cross-section was determined, which sets a limit on the validity of the Vlasov theory. In order to determine the design ultimate resistance of the cross-section, the effective width theory was applied, while taking into consideration the assumptions specified in the study. The application of the Critical Plate Method (CPM) was presented in the examples. Analytical calculation results were compared with selected experimental findings. lt was demonstrated that taking into consideration the CP elastic restraint and longitudinal stress variation results in a more accurate representation of thin-walled element behaviour in the engineering computational model