A detailed comparison of catalytic properties of two different ruthenium-based catalysts in the reaction of homogeneous hydrogenation of acetophenone was performed. Additionally, methods of synthesis of both catalysts were tested and optimized in order to achieve the best possible quality and purity of the final catalysts. NMR analysis was used to analyze and identify the composition of ruthenium compounds and gas chromatography was used to analyze the conversion rate of hydrogenation reactions. It was determined that RuCl2(PPh3)3 obtained with a modified method described by Shaw’s group (Shawet al., 2007) had the best catalytic properties in the reaction performed under conditions described in Liang Wang’s publication (Wang et al., 2014). It was also determined that for concentration ratio of substrate to RuCl2(PPh3)3 amounting to 250:1 the conversion rate was much higher than that of the reaction performed with a double dose of the catalyst. Results of experiments also show that samples of the post-reaction solution should be analyzed right after the reaction, because even if they are stored in low temperature the amount of product can change up to 3–5% compared to the base sample and this change is not predictable. These findings have significant implications for further research of the reaction of homogeneous transfer hydrogenation of ketones. With the right catalysts and methods of their synthesis other parameters of this reaction can be optimized. The most important one is a change of solvent from isopropyl alcohol to a less toxic substance like water. This may increase the value of the reaction in green chemistry and chemical industry.
The authors show how to strengthen the educational power of the museum. Emphasize the historical and contextual variability of the main functions performed by museum, indicate that the location of the museum in the community of the city and broaden the scope of its activities to different communities. Characterized by contemporary models of museum education, along with the arguments for taming the different models of learning both by visitors and museum’s staff. & e article presents two practices, which, in the opinion of the authors are conducive to learning in/and by the museum.
There are many industrial environments which are exposed to a high-level noise. It is necessary to protect people from the noise. Most of the time, the consumer requires a miniature version of a noise canceller to satisfy the internal working place requirements. Very important thing is to select the most appropriate personal hearing protection device, for example an earplug. It should guarantee high passive noise attenuation and allow for secondary sound generation in case of active control. In many cases the noise is nonstationary. For instance, some of the noisy devices are switched on and off, speed of some rotors or fans changes, etc. To avoid any severe transient acoustic effects due to potential convergence problems of adaptive systems, a fixed-parameter approach to control is appreciated. If the noise were stationary, it would be possible to design an optimal control filter minimising variance of the signal being the effect of the acoustic noise and the secondary sound interference. Because of noise nonstationarity for most applications, the idea of generalised disturbance defined by a frequency window of different types has been developed by the authors and announced in previous publications. The aim of this paper is to apply such an approach to different earplugs and verify its noise reduction properties. Simulation experiments are conducted based on real world measurements performed using the G. R. A. S. artificial head equipped with an artificial mechanical ear, and the noise recorded in a power plant.
Steel arch-rectangular support has a wide range of applications in Polish coal mines due to its asymmetrical shape. The frame has an arched outline on one side of the side wall, while on the opposite side it is rectangular. As a result, the support is ideal for securing set up room and recovery room. It can also be successfully used to secure three-way intersections of underground workings. To a large extent, however, the importance of these advantages is diminished by relatively low load-bearing parameters, resulting from a partially straight canopy, as well as the asymmetrical distribution of the load acting on the support in underground conditions. In order to ensure the proper and optimal operation of such frames, in addition to the standard requirements for roof supports, additional conditions must be met. The basic requirement is to support the end of the canopy on the corner of the excavation. This article presents examples of arch-rectangular supports, their applications as well as laboratory tests and strength analysis of the frames and its elements. These tests allowed the requirements regarding the construction of the frame, the selection of the support and the conditions of building in the excavation to be specified.