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Abstract

The objective of the submitted paper is to analyze the influence of the load on the calibration of micro-hardness and hardness testers. The results were validated by Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Z-score. The relationship between the load and micro-hardness in calibration of micro-hardness testers cannot be explained by Kick's Law (Meyer's index "n" is different from 2). The conditions of Kick's Law are satisfied at macro-hardness calibration, the values of "n" are close to 2, regardless of the applied load. The apparent micro-hardness increases with the increase of the load up to 30 g; the reverse indentation size effect (ISE) behavior is typical for this interval of the loads. The influence of the load on the measured micro-hardness is statistically significant for majority of calibrations.
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Abstract

Applying rigorous analytical methods, formulas describing the sound radiation have been obtained for the wedge region bounded by two transverse baffles with a common edge and bottom. It has been assumed that the surface sound source is located at the bottom. The presented formulas can be used to calculate the sound pressure and power inside the wedge region. They are valid for any value of the wedge angle and represent a generalization of the formulas describing the sound radiation inside the two and three-wall corner region. Moreover, the presented formulas can be easily adapted for any case when more than one sound source is located at the bottom. To demonstrate their practical application, the distribution of the sound pressure modulus and the sound power have been analyzed in the case of a rectangular piston located at the wedge’s bottom. The influence of the transverse baffle on the sound power has been investigated. Based on the obtained formulas, the behaviour of acoustic fields inside a wedge can be predicted.
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Abstract

The overall purpose of this study was to assess hearing status in professional orchestral musicians. Standard pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were per- formed in 126 orchestral musicians. Occupational and non-occupational risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) were identified in questionnaire inquiry. Data on sound pressure levels produced by various groups of instruments were also collected and analyzed. Measured hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the theoretical predictions calculated according to ISO 1999 (1990). Musicians were exposed to excessive sound at weekly noise exposure levels of for 81-100 dB (mean: 86.6±4.0 dB) for 5-48 years (mean: 24.0±10.7 years). Most of them (95%) had hearing corresponds to grade 0 of hearing impairment (mean hearing threshold level at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz lower than 25 dB). However, high frequency notched audiograms typical for noise-induced hearing loss were found in 35% of cases. Simultaneously, about 35% of audiograms showed typical for NIHL high frequency notches (mainly occurring at 6000 Hz). When analyzing the impact of age, gender and noise exposure on hearing test results both PTA and TEOAE consistently showed better hearing in females vs. males, younger vs. older musicians. But higher exposure to orchestral noise was not associated with poorer hearing tests results. The musician’s audiometric hearing threshold levels were poorer than equivalent non-noise-exposed population and better (at 3000 and 4000 Hz) than expected for noise-exposed population according to ISO 1999 (1990). Thus, music impairs hearing of orchestral musicians, but less than expected from noise exposure.
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