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Abstract

These studies examined the concept of concentration and purification of several types of wastewater by freezing and thawing. The experiments demonstrated that freezing of contaminated liquid contributed to concentration of contaminants in solution as well as significant concentration and agglomeration of solid particles. A high degree of purification was achieved for many parameters. The results of comparative laboratory tests for single and multiple freezing are presented. It was found that there was a higher degree of concentration of pollutants in wastewater frozen as man-made snow than in bulk ice. Furthermore, the hypothesis that long storage time of liquid as snow and sufficient temperature gradient metamorphism allows for high efficiency of the concentration process was confirmed. It was reported that the first 30% of the melted liquid volume contained over 90% of all impurities. It gives great opportunities to use this method to concentrate pollutants. The results revealed that the application of this process in full scale is possible. Significant agglomeration of solid particles was also noted. Tests with clay slurry showed that repeated freezing and thawing processes significantly improve the characteristics of slurry for sedimentation and filtration.
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Abstract

The Northern Sea Route is the shortest shipping lane connecting European part of Russia with the Far East and Syberia. The search for a route to China and India, undertaken by the English, Dutch and Russians, went on from mid 16th century until the end of 19th century. Its importance in the present day is exemplified by the traffic: 2007 alone saw 10 million tons of goods shipped along the Route. The Northern Sea Route is the apple of Russia’s eye. It plays a major part in the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2030, Russia also produced Concept of the Northern Sea Route Development until 2015 and a draft newlaw specifically addressing shipping along it. A crucial factor in economic feasibility of the route is the state of relations between members of the Arctic Council (the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark), the observer states (Germany, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland) and the states that requested observer status (China, Japan, South Korea).
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