Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review


Opto-Electronics Review | 2017 | vol. 25 | No 2 |

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Photovoltaic (PV) technologies which play a role in PV market are divided into basic two types: wafer-based (1st generation PV) and thin-film cell (2nd generation PV). To the first category belong mainly crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells (both mono- and multi-crystalline). In 2015 around 90% of the solar market belonged to crystalline silicon. To the 2nd generation solar cells belongs thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) or a combination of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/μc-Si), compound semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe), compound semiconductor made of copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIS or CIGS) and III–V materials. The PV market for thin film technology is dominated by CdTe and CIGS solar cells. Thin film solar cells’ share for all thin film technologies was only 10% in 2015. New emerging technologies, called 3rd generation solar cells, remain the subject of extensive R&D studies but have not been used in the PV market, so far.

In this review the best laboratory 1st and 2nd generation solar cells that were recently achieved are described. The scheme of the layer structure and energy band diagrams will be analyzed in order to explain the boost of their efficiency with reference to the earlier standard designs.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Płaczek-Popko
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In this work we report on fabrication of quantum wires and quantum point contacts from the modulation doped CdMgTe/Cd(Mn)Te structures, with the application of a high-resolution electron-beam lithography. We emphasize on methods which were not yet utilized for these substrate materials. In particular, we describe the so-called shallow-etching approach, which allows for the fabrication of quantum constrictions of a physical width down to 100 nm, which are characterized by the smoother confining potential as compared to the deep-etched devices. For that purpose, a single-line exposure mode of electron-beam lithography has been used. We demonstrate also, how to combine the etching of separating grooves with the thermal evaporation of metal side-gates into a single post-processing stage of a quantum point contact fabrication.

This article is an expanded version of the scientific reports presented at the International Conference on Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronics and Biosensors 2016 ICSeNOB2016, May 22–25, 2016, Rzeszow, Poland.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Bobko
D. Płoch
M. Wiater
T. Wojtowicz
J. Wróbel
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We propose real time phase measurements in liquid crystals cells using Young's interferometer constructed with a new principle with possibility to control the distance between two point sources. The optical interference optical pattern is detected by a bicell photo-detector in a back Fourier focal plane. A phase modulation controlled by a monopixel liquid crystals’ cell placed in a reference arm of interferometer is observed as a dynamic shift of the fringes’ pattern in spatial domain. Concept of signals’ demodulation in the Fourier focal plane will be described using a new approach to the demodulation signals. In this work we evaluate the demodulation condition of our setup and we present measurements of a dynamic phase response for nematic liquid crystals and antiferroelectric liquid crystals cells.

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Authors and Affiliations

N. Bennis
I. Merta
A. Kalbarczyk
M. Maciejewski
P. Marc
A. Spadlo
L.R. Jaroszewicz
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Recent years, the design of photonic crystal (PC) based optical devices is receiving keen interest in research and scientific community. In this paper, two dimensional (2D) PC based eight channel demultiplexer is proposed and designed and the functional characteristics of demultiplexer namely resonant wavelength, transmission efficiency, quality factor, spectral width, channel spacing and crosstalk are investigated. The demultiplexer is designed to drop the wavelength centred at 1537.6 nm, 1538.5 nm, 1539.4 nm, 1540.4 nm, 1541.2 nm, 1541.9 nm, 1542.6 nm and 1543.1 nm. The proposed demultiplexer is primarily composed of bus waveguide, drop waveguide and quasi square ring resonator. The quasi square ring resonator and square ring micro cavity (inner rods) are playing a vital role for a desired channel selection. The operating range of the devices is identified through a photonic band gap (PBG) which is obtained using a plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The functional characteristics of the proposed demultiplexer are attained using a 2D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed device offers low crosstalk and high transmission efficiency with ultra-compact size, hence, it is highly desirable for DWDM applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

V. Kannaiyan
R. Savarimuthu
S.K. Dhamodharan
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We present the results of a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with line defect for a laser gas sensor working in a slow light regime. The geometrical parameters of photonic crystals with three different line defects were numerically analyzed: a missing row of holes, a row of holes with changed diameter and air channel. Antireflection sections were also analyzed. The simulations were carried out by MEEP and MPB programs, with the aim to get the values of a group refractive index, transmission and a light-gas overlap as high as possible. The effective refractive index method was used to reduce the simulation time and required computing power. We also described numerical simulation details such as required conditions to work in the slow light regime and the analyzed parameters values’ dependency of the simulation resolution that may influence the accuracy of the results.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Zakrzewski
S. Patela
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Composition effect on electro-optic (EO) properties of a LiNbO3 (LN) single-crystal has been investigated in a Li2O-content range of 47.0–49.95 mol%. Some non-congruent LN crystals with different Li2O-contents were prepared by performing Li-deficient or Li-rich vapour transport equilibration treatments on as-grown congruent LN crystals. Unclamped EO coefficients γ13 and γ33 of these samples were measured by a Mach–Zehnder interferometric method. The measurements show that in the Li-deficient regime both γ13 and γ33 increase by ∼8% as Li2O-content decreases from the congruent 48.6 mol% to the 47.0 mol% in the Li-deficient regime. The feature is desired for the EO application of the Li-deficient crystal. In the near-stoichiometric regime, both γ13 and γ33 reveal a non-monotonic dependence. As the Li2O-content increases from the 48.6 mol%, the EO coefficient decreases. Around Li2O-content 49.5 mol%, a minimum is reached. After that, the EO coefficient recovers slowly. At the stoichiometric composition, it recovers to a value close to that at the congruent point. Comparison shows that different crystal growth methods give rise to different defect structure features and hence different composition effects.

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Authors and Affiliations

J.-Q. Xu
W.-Y. Du
Q. Sun
W.-H. Wong
D.-Y. Yu
E.Y.-B. Pun
D.-L. Zhang
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Clean and cheap device, namely dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using a natural dye extracted from Sambucus ebulus. We prepared five sample solutions with various pH in the extraction process to improve power conversion efficiency. The UV–visible absorption investigation of sample solutions and on photoanode show the dyes from J-type aggregation on a photoanode substrate. Redox properties of all sample solutions certify thermodynamically a charge transfer from excited state to conduction band TiO2. The optical properties of various dye solutions were investigated and results showed darkness and bluish tint effect of dye solutions extracted in basic environment rather than those extracted in acidic condition. Moreover, in comparison to the basic condition, the dye solutions extracted in acidic environment were more saturated and colorimetrically less different from that one which extracted in neutral condition. Photophysical and photoelectrochemical performance of natural extraction dyes have been studied in dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The results show the rather high conversion efficiency of 0.57%, 1.15%, 1.02%, 0.35% and 0.15% of each individual dye extraction, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hosseinnezhad
R. Jafari
K. Gharanjig
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The paper presents the idea to improve the performance of thin film photovoltaic cells by a light capture enhancement through the introduction of down shifting energy converters. Luminescent down shifting layers convert high-energy photons (UV light) into low-energy ones (visible light), which are more efficient in a photovoltaic conversion. For this purpose, the application of a thin layer composed of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles deposited onto a thin film solar cell is proposed. The paper presents both experimental and theoretical results of this approach. Conducted investigations include an analysis of ZnO nanoparticle layers, deposited in two independent technology methods. The results showed that ZnO nanoparticles have a great potential of application as down converting layers and can be implemented to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic cells, especially in the field of thin film PV structures. The proposed new deposition method can potentially be used in some industrial photovoltaic applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Znajdek
M. Sibiński
Z. Lisik
A. Apostoluk
Y. Zhu
B. Masenelli
P. Sędzicki
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There exists a problem with an in situ diagnostics of contamination of ethyl alcohol in a human being exhaled air. When ethyl alcohol in a mouth blowing (in a gaseous state) exists, the characteristic C–H stretch absorption bands in –CH3 and –CH2 – functional groups in ethanol (CH3–CH2–OH) appear at a wavelength of λ = 3.42 μm. To investigate the presence of ethyl alcohol in exhaled human air, the light beam of λ = 3.42 μm is passing through an air sample. If one alternately measures the intensity of the investigated beam and the reference, a percentage of ethanol in the air sample can be estimated using a sensitive nondispersive infrared (NDIR) system with a stable operating flow mass detector. To eliminate a mechanical chopper and noise generating stepper motors, a photonic chopper as a liquid crystal shutter for λ = 3.42 μm has been designed. For this purpose, an innovative infrared nematic liquid crystal mixture was intentionally prepared. The working mixture was obtained by a selective removal of CH bonds and its exchange by heavier polar substituents, what ensures a lack of absorption band of C–H bonds. The paper presents theory, concept and final experimental results of the infrared nematic liquid crystals mixture and the liquid crystal shutter for breathalyzer applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Piecek
L. Jaroszewicz
E. Miszczyk
Z. Raszewski
M. Mrukiewicz
P. Kula
K. Jasek
P. Perkowski
E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki
J. Zieliński
J. Kędzierski
M. Olifierczuk
U. Chodorow
P. Morawiak
R. Mazur
K. Kowiorski
P. Harmata
J. Herman
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The problem of influence of mechanical vibrations on a measurement is well known and analyzed for ground conditions. However, the problem becomes quite essential and difficult to solve in space conditions. The influence of vibrations on accuracy of the measurement was observed on MIPAS – ENVISAT and in PFS Mars Express.

This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation on sensitivity to mechanical disturbances of the Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer PFS.

A theoretical analysis has been performed in order to highlight the expected effect of the vibration, then laboratory tests have been designed and carried out for instrument characterization.

The theoretical investigation has been confirmed by experimental tests.

The data were distorted by errors that reflect the influence of vibrations on the instrument and temperature instability of the reference source.

The considerations are a perfect example presenting the scale of vibrations problem and the instability of the reference source in assessing accuracy of the measurement in space.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Pietrzak
M. Rataj
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Propagation of linearly polarized light beams in a nematic liquid crystal cell with distinguished regions of different molecular orientation has been analyzed. Specifically, combination of the planar/homogenic and homeotropic alignment, forming thus spatially limited regions characterized by a different LC molecular orientation, has been tested, as achieved by means of the photo-orientation and photo-polymerization processes, independently. An influence of molecular orientation on the light beam propagation has been checked for different directions of the linear polarization. Thanks to the molecular reorientation induced by the low frequency external electric field and also to the reorientational nonlinearity taking place in NLCs, propagation direction of the light beam can be additionally controlled by the electric bias and/or optical power, respectively. Proposed structural solutions and techniques, related to the photo-orientation and photo-polymerization processes described in this communication, give rise to the novel LC geometries and structures. The latter act as promising candidates for new practical photonic applications as they are expected to be of a particular importance for integrated optic elements and devices.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.A. Rutkowska
M. Chychłowski
M. Kwaśny
I. Ostromęcka
J. Piłka
U.A. Laudyn
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To study the influence of structural features of phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives on their physico-chemical properties in bulk and thin films, 23 new phthalocyanines with different quantity and ratio of donor (alkyloxy-groups, in fragment “A”) and acceptor (Cl-, in fragment “B”) substituents in one molecule of the A3B, ABAB and AABB types with varied length of alkyloxy-substituents and their metal complexes were designed and synthesized. A comparative analysis of spectral, mesomorphic and photoelectric properties of these mix-substituted phthalocyanines of a “push–pull” type was performed. It was shown that non-peripheral substitution by alkyloxy-fragments in hetero-substituted Pcs (similar to homo-substituted Pc) leads to red-shifting of the Q-band into near-IR region. The intensity of photoluminescence, position of peaks and their splitting are strongly connected with chemical structure of Pcs and the type of solvent. In contrast to non-mesogenic octyloxy-Pc (A4) having alkyloxy-substituents in non-peripheral positions, 22 of 23 synthesized compounds possess columnar mesomorphism. The change of donor–acceptor ratio can influence the type of mesophase. A new approach to the creation of materials for optoelectronics is proposed and implemented, which includes design of compounds possessing vitrification from mesophase with maintenance of a columnar order, absorption in the near IR-region of the spectrum and good performance electrophysical characteristics simultaneously.

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Authors and Affiliations

N.V. Usol’tseva
A.I. Smirnova
A.V. Kazak
N.I. Giricheva
N.E. Galanin
G.P. Shaposhnikov
V.V. Bodnarchuk
S.V. Yablonskii
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Quantum dots, due to their unique optical properties, constitute significant materials for many areas of nanotechnology and bionanotechnology. This work presents a review of researches dedicated to the interaction between quantum dots (QDs) with human serum albumin (HSA) and human cell culture as important for nanomedicine applications. The optical properties of bio-nanocomplexes formed by nanoparticles including colloidal QDs (e.g., CdTe, CdS, CdCoS) and albumin are displayed. The absorption spectra show that adding HSA to colloidal QDs leads to a gradual decrease of absorption and broadening of the exciton structure. The photoluminescence quenching results indicate that the quenching effect of QDs on HSA fluorescence depends on the size and temperature. The nature of quenching is rather static, resulting in forming QD-HSA complexes. The CdTe QD-HSA complexes show chemical stability in a PBS buffer. Furthermore, it is stable in cytoplasm and suitable for cell labeling, tracking, and other bioimaging applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Wojnarowska-Nowak
J. Polit
A. Zięba
I.D. Stolyarchuk
S. Nowak
M. Romerowicz-Misielak
E.M. Sheregii
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Analysis is performed of the contemporary views on the effect of ion etching (ion-beam milling and reactive ion etching) on physical properties of HgCdTe and on the mechanisms of the processes responsible for modification of these properties under the etching. Possibilities are discussed that ion etching opens for defect studies in HgCdTe, including detecting electrically neutral tellurium nanocomplexes, determining background donor concentration in the material of various origins, and understanding the mechanism of arsenic incorporation in molecular-beam epitaxy-grown films.

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Authors and Affiliations

I.I. Izhnin
K.D. Mynbaev
A.V. Voitsekhovskii
A.G. Korotaev
O.I. Fitsych
M. Pociask-Bialy

Editorial office

Opto-Electronics Review - Editorial Board

L. R. JAROSZEWICZ, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Deputy Editor-in Chief:
P. MARTYNIUK, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Board of Co-editors:

Optical Design and Applications
V.O. ANGELSKY, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine

Image Processing
M. JÓŹWIK, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

T. ANTOSIEWICZ, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland

Modelling of Optoelectronic Devices. Semiconductor Lasers
M. DEMS, Łódź Technical University, Łódź, Poland

Optoelectronics Materials
D. DOROSZ, AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems
T.P. GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland

Infrared Physics and Technology <
M. KOPYTKO, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Technology and Fabrication of Optoelectronic Devices
J. MUSZALSKI, Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Photonic Crystals
K. PANAJOTOV, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels, Belgium

Laser Physics, Technology and Applications
J. ŚWIDERSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Optical Sensors and Applications
M. ŚMIETANA, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

A. IWAN, Military Institute of Engineer Technology, Wroclaw, Poland

Biomedical Optics and Photonics
A. LIEBERT, Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw, Poland

International Editorial Advisory Board

D. BIMBERG, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany

F. CAPASSO, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA

A.I. DIROCHKA, Production Center ORION, Moscow, Russia

P.G. ELISEEV, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA

P. HARING−BOLIVAR, University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany

M. HENINI, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England

B. JASKORZYNSKA, Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden

M. KIMATA, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan

R. KLETTE, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

S. KRISHNA, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA

H.C. LIU, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

J. MISIEWICZ, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland

E. OZBAY, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

J.G. PELLEGRINI, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, Fort Belvoir, USA

M. RAZEGHI, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

A. ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

P. RUSSELL, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen, Germany

V. RYZHII, University of Aizu, Aizu, Japan

C. SIBILIA, Universita' di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy

A. TORRICELLI, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

T. WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

W. WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

S.−T. WU, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA

Y.P. YAKOVLEV, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

J. ZIELŃSKI, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Language Editor

J. Kulesza, e-mail:

Technical Editors:

R.Podraza, e-mail:

E.Sadowska, e-mail:


Military University of Technology,

Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego St. 2,

00 – 908 Warsaw, Poland

Instructions for authors

Open Access policy

Opto-Electronics Review is an open access journal with all content available with no charge for readers in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-SA 4.0

Additional information

Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encourage. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

Articles are published in OPELRE in the following categories:

-invited reviews presenting the current state of the knowledge,

-specialized topics at the forefront of optoelectronics and photonics and their applications,

-refereed research contributions reporting on original scientific or technological achievements,

-conference papers printed in normal issues as invited or contributed papers.

Authors of review papers are encouraged to write articles of relevance to a wide readership including both those established in this field of research and non-specialists working in related areas. Papers considered as “letters” are not published in OPELRE.

Opto-Electronics Review is published quarterly as a journal of the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers (SEP) and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in cooperation with the Military University of Technology and under the auspices of the Polish Optoelectronics Committee of SEP.

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Current Contents - Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences

Current Contents - Engineering, Technology & Applied Sciences

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The editors of the journal place particular emphasis on compliance with the following principles:

Authorship of the paper: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study.

Originality and plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Data access and retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication: An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication.

Acknowledgement of sources: Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest: All submissions must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest.

Fundamental errors in published works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

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Use of patient images or case details: Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper.

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