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Studia Nauk Teologicznych

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Studia Nauk Teologicznych | 2019 | Tom 14 |

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Abstract

According to Professor Czesław S. Bartnik, the scopes of both faith and culture are analogous to the human phenomenon. At the beginning, there is an individual person – hence both the faith and individual culture (microculture); then the specific community appears, and with it also the common culture (macroculture) as well as the community faith. Usually, culture is understood as an action that makes a person become more human (active aspect of culture). According to Bartnik’s personalism, the aspect of experience, any reception of the world (passive aspect of culture) should be added. The same dimensions can be seen in the experience of faith (active and passive). There is a correlation between faith (religion) and culture: religion defines culture, and culture defines religion (whereas culture is “earlier” in man than religion). The article shows that they both constitute a kind of dyad which leads to personalization of the human being (who nowadays is constantly threatened with unbelief and anti-culture – depersonalization). The culture–faith dyad is subject to the laws of history, and may assume various forms during its course. Former cultures used to be almost entirely built on natural faith in God although they had their atheist element, too. Currently, we already have an epoch of culture that strives to take an entirely atheist shape, however, even this culture does not exist without a religious (or pseudo-religious) form. However, the culture-faith dyad does not become disintegrated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ks. Jan Krzysztof Miczyński
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Abstract

Faith and culture remain closely connected. Faith that does not become a culture is not the belief of the original. Nevertheless, we can observe two behavioral and confrontational and cooperative models over the history of these two relationships. Confrontation is a kind of cultural opposition to faith. Cooperation is aimed at comprehensive cooperation. The article analyzes the history of these relations which together with the new person’s awareness of the Church was able to develop a new concept of culture through which the Church will not only try to remove accommodation but also try to root in the world. Doing that, Church doesn’t forget about the evangelizing nature of the culture and communicative character of faith. Faith in Christ can be a source of culture with a C hristian profile, however, the point of departure for culture will always be human and not faith. The task of Culture is to express who a person is. Emphasizing this anthropology that portrays a man as a cultural centre goes hand in hand with presenting the human person as a picture of God. The above statement is the summit of personalistic anthropology and the source of the greatest human dignity. In this way, anthropology and Christology are as close as possible to each other.

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Ks. Witold Kawecki CSSR
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Abstract

In this paper, the question of religious potential of contemporary art is posed only in relation to visual arts, which contain the concept of religious art. The difficulty in answering it stems from the lack of consensus on the relevant criteria for determining if a given work of art is a religious one. These criteria might include the author’s faith and the religious topic, the liturgical or devotional function, as well as a style that is capable of expressing the sacred. The issue of how these criteria function in contemporary art cannot be answered without taking a closer look at two moments essential for the development of religious art. The first was the Renaissance, when the aesthetic values of a work began to give way to theological determinants. The second was the nineteenth century with its attempts to create a new canon of religious art. Both of these critical moments in the development of sacred art show that the religious potential of art depends on the concomitance of many factors. The main problem is finding a new form, a new style able to express the sacred and engage in dialogue with contemporary art as once the icon would.

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Ks. Andrzej Draguła
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Abstract

Numerous films, especially reinterpretations of the Gospel, can be read as loci theologici. Nevertheless, it’s important to recognize that the commercially motivated interest of filmmakers has its theological consequences: a resulting challenge is the catechetical use of apocryphal films in the pastoral praxis of the Church. The paper recalls main documents of the Church, relating to the cinema, stressing the absence of official teaching on the cinema in the last 20 years. Films, produced with commercial motivation, are often kitsch; it’s a result of tendencies to gain the possibly large audiences and to fulfill their expectations. An analysis of selected films (e.g. The Passion of the Christ and Son of God) indicates that the kitschy audiovisual apocrypha, superficial, emotional and lacking of authenticity, become a false filmic transformation of the message of the Bible. The paper postulates the need of constructing a theology of film: its object could be audiovisual texts, which extra-ecclesial theologies influence religious imagination and thinking of the viewers.

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Ks. Marek Lis
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Abstract

This study focuses on potential athletic language in Phil 3:12-16. The main focus is the question what the assumption of the presence of athletic language in this text contributes to understanding it and especially its theological meaning better. The study consists of three parts. In part 1, the author analyses the preceding and the subsequent context of Phil 3:12-16 joining the defenders of a concentric structure: 3:1-11 (A), 3:12-16 (B), 3:17-4:1 (A’). The two framing sections (A and A’) focus on the opposition between Paul and his opponents, but the main point is Paul’s command to the Philippian addressees to “stand firm in the Lord”. Part 2 contains a brief exegetical analysis of 3:12-16. Our analysis focuses on the most important words (gaining/attaining; movement; thinking) and the goal of heavenly perfection with which they are connected. In the third part we analyse the potential athletic images in 3:12-16 which finds its “anchor point” in the noun τὸ βραβεῖον in 3:14. Based on the acceptance of this noun as an agonistic terminus technicus, other verbs and nouns which are not in and of themselves referring to athletics are interpreted as having an athletic meaning in our context. The study concludes with the caution that Paul counterbalances the “effort-reward scheme” of athletic language with the “giving-receiving scheme” of his call language. In this way, Paul introduces an emphasis on the future-orientedness of the message which is characteristic of his preaching and living.

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Reimund Bieringer
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Abstract

Forms and means of theatrical expression in ancient Roman culture, abounding in the diversity of artistic forms, had perfect conditions for development. The cultural activity of man has naturally created the need for stage performances. This publication presents a detailed analysis of the provisions of the synods summoned and debating in the 4th and 5th centuries, A.D. T heir content was carefully referenced, in relation to actors, mimes and circus drivers. The reason for such an outline of research is the classification common to all these professions generally describing them as representatives of performing arts. The analysis on this matter was subjected, inter alia, to canons proclaimed in Elvira (306), Arles (314), Carthage (15 June 401), Hippo (427) and again in Arles (442–506). In order to more fully illustrate the issue cited in the subject, the situation of representatives of performing arts was also discussed on the example of actors in Roman public law and a short description of the history of synods in the ancient Church was presented.

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Maria Piechocka-Kłos
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Abstract

The article is devoted above all to the analysis of the concept of conscience in relation to the space of public life (institutional, professional). The author of the article devotes a special place to the concept of conscience in interpretation of Jürgen Habermas and his ethics of discourse. In the first part of the article, the author points to the change it has made in the modern and contemporary sense of conscience in comparison with classical interpretations. Earlier, the power of conscience was associated with the intellect, whereas today’s conscience is associated with emotions, especially with the ability to empathize, especially the subject’s ability to empathize. Some emotions are cognitive and are related to contextual knowledge. In the second part, the author analyses the concept of the development of moral consciousness of Jürgen Habermas. This concept is based on a philosophical interpretation of the conclusions of the psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg’s experiment. In conclusion, the author writes about of the presence of the “voice” of conscience in the space of public life. Defending the value of discourse on the principles of social life, it can be based on the postulate of Habermas, or the dialogue of people with sensitive consciences.

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Mariusz Wojewoda
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Abstract

The article is titled “The symbol of the serpent in the Apocalypse of St. John”. Its aim is an exegetical analysis of the term “serpent” (ὄφις). The expression appears in Rev 9:19; 12:9; 20:2 and 12:14-16. In Rev 9:19 snakes are a symbolic element of a cavalry that realizes God’s plan. In other texts the serpent is a symbol of Satan. In Rev 12:9; 20,2 appears the title “the ancient serpent” referring to the biblical story of Gen 3:1-24. It is emphasized that Satan is the tempter. In Rev 12:14-16 the term “serpent” is used as a synonym for the dragon. It is possible that the symbolic scene of aggression towards woman expresses a destructive satanic action against the Church. We also ask a question how much the apocalyptic dragon (δράκων) is a serpent. In the course of exegetical analysis we have paid attention to two perspectives. The first is a historical and religious background of the serpent symbol in Rev. The second is original theology of Rev. One of her basic features is very rich symbolism. The author of Rev. refers to the past, but introduces a new, original content.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ks. Marek Karczewski
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Abstract

Like all religions Islam, too, has substantial ethical contents. The unique character of Islamic ethics, however, comes from the fact that it is entirely rooted in religion and so cannot be separated from it. Thus it is formed by the teaching of the Quran, to which the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad (sunnah) offers explanations. Man’s behavior in this sense is an act of either obedience or disobedience to God himself. It is also true that in the Muslim world a philosophical conception of ethics has evolved mainly due to Islam’s encounter with Greek culture. The central concept of Islamic ethics is character (khuluq), which is the state of man’s soul. It is in his character that man develops a tendency to perform either good or bad actions. Such understanding of human dispositions has much to do with Aristotle’s perception of man’s inner state that guides him to good or evil actions. These preliminary basic clarifications on Islamic ethics are then followed by brief accounts of select issues of moral life. Among those there are three main virtues (justice, kindness, charity) and vices (indecency, wickedness, oppression), marriage and the family, or the sanctity of human life (implying an ethical rejection of abortion and euthanasia).

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Ks. Sławomir Nowosad
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Abstract

This Paper takes in consideration the Social teaching of the Church, particularly expressed in the Encyclical Letter of Pope Francis Laudato si’ and in other documents of the Magisterium. The article presents the basic characteristics of „Culture of Care” and „Culture of Waste”, of biopower, of positive biopolitics and of negative biopolitics (thanatobiopolitics) with some alarming examples (legalization of abortion, selective abortions of females, destruction of supernumerary frozen embryos, lobbying for the legalization of euthanasia). Subsequently, it introduces the contribution of the Christian faith to these debates, from the biblical, theological and moral point of view, and invites the reader to respond to the urgent challenges in biopolitics by the responsible creativity in the social, moral and political fields. The „Culture of Care” is a culture of acceptance of the other, shaped by Christian hope and love, a culture of presence and of interest in the other, following the example of Jesus Christ.

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Ján Ďačok SJ
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Abstract

In Christian ethical and anthropological discourse, the concept of “human nature” represented one of the main criteria from which norms for social and individual ethics derived. The age of Enlightenment brought about a serious criticism of this concept refusing its metaphysical justification. New opinions prevailed in philosophical and scientific discourse of that time. They rejected existence of common anthropological determinants and supported a thesis claiming that people are primarily formed in society and that the concept of “human nature” entails a risk of abuse of power by promoting only one view of the human being. The presented paper studies the relevance of this concept today and examines it from the perspective of Jonathan Haidt’s social psychology, which, as the author claims, contributes to better understanding of human nature. Standard metaphysical and theological definitions of human nature that prevailed mostly in Christian discourse needs to be extended by including findings from social and exact sciences and use them as a suitable medium for a dialogue in a pluralistic environment, and push the limits of our knowledge about humans.

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Radovan Šoltés
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Abstract

The Meaning of Life by Yevgeny Trubetskoy (1863–1920) is one of the most important works of the religious-philosophical renaissance in Russia. The book addresses the issue of value of human life despite the evidence of evil, violence and moral decline. In order to achieve his aim the Russian thinker referred to the philosophy of all-unity and the category of revelation. However, he understood the latter category in two ways: broad and narrow. In the broad sense the higher meaning of revelation (all-unity) is constantly revealed to humans, which allows them to cognize and develop. In the narrow sense revelation came from Jesus Christ who has revealed the deepest sense of life by means of His paschal mystery. Every human being has a choice to accept or reject the content of the narrow revelation. Such things as collective consciousness, community-based experience, living within church, eucharist, and common responsibility not only for the fellow believers, but also for the whole creation – can help to accept the narrow revelation. The following article discusses also the aspects of natural revelation, revelation in non-christian religions, conditions and characteristics of christian revelation.

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O. Adam Trochimowicz OFMCap
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Abstract

This article discusses the last Sunday in the Pre-Lenten period in the liturgical tradition of the Orthodox Church known as “Cheese-fare Sunday” or “Forgiveness Sunday”. The faithful’s attention is concentrated on the need to forgive others as one of the main conditions of crossing the threshold of Great Lent. Particularly noteworthy is the explanation of the very term “forgiveness”, as well as the kind of theological and moral message that the Fathers of the Church and the authors of the texts of the services of Great Lent find in it. Furthermore, it also clearly points out the tragic consequences of the fall of man, which is why has also been called “The Sunday of the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise.” The main reason for recollecting this tragic event is the purely didactic aspect. There are two perspectives of spiritual life for a man who begins the trial of a fast way. On the one hand, endowed with free will - like the protoplasts - has the opportunity to choose a life in accordance with God’s commandments, which will result in constant communion with Him and saturating the gift of His grace. On the other hand, he observes what the lack of temperance and disobedience to the Creator causes. Great Lent is therefore an attempt to show the right way to return to Paradise reality and unity with God and people.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ks. Adam Magruk

Editorial office

Rada Naukowa:
Prof. dr hab. Clemens Breuer (Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule St. Pölten/Austria)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Bogdan Częsz (UAM Poznań)
Ks. dr hab. prof. UKSW Stanisław Dziekoński (UKSW Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Bogdan Ferdek (PWT Wrocław)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Krzysztof Góźdź (KUL Lublin)
Ks. bp dr hab. prof. ChAT Marcin Hintz (ChAT Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr Dariusz Kowalczyk SJ (Pontificia Università Gregoriana Rzym/Włochy)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Józef Kulisz (Bobolanum Warszawa)
Ks. prof. Piotr Morciniec (UO Opole)
O. prof. dr hab. Andrzej Napiórkowski (UJPII)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Jan Perszon (UMK Toruń)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Jan Słomka (UŚ Katowice)

 

Komitet Redakcyjny:
Ks. prof. dr hab. Tadeusz Dola (UO Opole)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Marian Machinek (UWM OLsztyn) - przewodniczący
Ks. dr hab. Artur Malina (UŚ Katowice)
Ks. prof. Dr hab. Sławomir Nowosad (KUL Lublin)
Prof. dr hab. Eugeniusz Sakowicz (UKSW Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Henryk Seweryniak (UKSW Warszawa)
Dr Małgorzata Laskowska (UKSW Warszawa) - sekretarz

 

Redaktorzy tematyczni:
Ks. prof. dr hab. Paweł Bortkiewicz (UAM Poznań) - teologia moralna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Waldemar Chrostowski (UKSW Warszawa) - nauki biblijne
O. prof. dr hab. Jacek Salij (UKSW Warszawa) - teologia dogmatyczna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Łukasz Kamykowski (UPJPII) - teologia fundamentalna
Prof. dr hab. Krystian Wojaczek (UO Opole) - teologia pastoralna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Henryk Pietras (AI Kraków) - patrologia, historia Kościoła

 

Redaktorzy językowi:
Alois Hüging - Biesdorf/Niemcy (j. niemiecki)
Raymund Brennan - Londyn/Wielka Brytania (j. angielski)

 

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1 A. Derdziuk, Teologia moralna w służbie wiary Kościoła, Wydawnictwo KUL Lublin 2010, 125-134.

2 A. Derdziu, k, Teologia moralna …, s. 89.

3 P. Feyerabend, Mentale Ereignisse und das Gehirn, w: P. Bieri (red.), Analytische Philosophie des Geistes, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim-Basel 42007, s. 121-125.

5 Pius XII, Divino afflante Spiritu, AAS 35 (1943), s. 297–325.

6 DWR 10.

7 TWNT, t. 1, s. 321.

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