Civil engineering is one of the many fields of occurrences of uncertain parameters. The present paper in an attempt to present and describe the most common methods used for inclusions of uncertain parameters . These methods can be applied in the area of civil engineering as well as for a larger domain. Definitions and short explanations of methods based on probability, interval analysis, fuzzy sets, and convex sets are presented. Selected advantages, disadvantages, and the most common fields of implementation are indicated.
An example of a cantilever beam presented in this paper shows the main differences between the methods. Results of the performed analysis indicate that the use of convex sets allows us to obtain an accuracy of results similar to stochastic models. At the same time, the computational speed characteristic for interval methods is maintained.
Rubberized concrete is made up of scrap tyre rubbers where the fine aggregate is partially replaced by it, as the waste rubber is being a threat to the environment. It is estimated that only 4% of the waste tyre is used in the application of civil engineering and also there is shortage of fine aggregates. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the preliminary concrete properties of M25 and M30 concretes. The fine aggregate is replaced by pre-treated crumb rubber with 10, 15 and 20 % of total weight. Various tests are conducted on the rubberized concrete specimens such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and slump test. The investigation is carried out to determine the impact load behavior of hybrid rubberized composite slabs. In addition 0%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of replacement of rubber fibers for total weight of coarse aggregate is also made. The specimen of size 300 mm x 300 mm x 50 mm thickness is subjected to drop hammer test to find its performance against the impact loads. The number of blows for the first crack and complete failure of slab was found and the characteristics were studied.
The paper presents the experimental research and numerical simulations of reinforced concrete beams under torsional load. In the experimental tests Digital Image Correlation System (DIC System) Q-450 were used. DIC is a non-contact full-field image analysis method, based on grey value digital images that can determine displacements and strains of an object under load. Numerical simulations of the investigated beams were performed by using the ATENA 3D – Studio program. Creation of numerical models of reinforced concrete elements under torsion was complicated due to difficulties in modelling of real boundary conditions of these elements. The experimental research using DIC can be extremely useful in creating correct numerical models of investigated elements. High accuracy and a wide spectrum of results obtained from experimental tests allow for the modification of the boundary conditions assumed in the numerical model, so that these conditions correspond to the real fixing of the element during the tests.
In this study, the issue of intensity of cargo train-induced soil vibrations is presented. Oscillations were measured in Warsaw-Rembertow location with application of set of seismic receivers. The analysis concerns the ground vibration differentiation issue, depending on considered direction of oscillation propagation plane. Statistic distribution of vibration intensity for directions in 3-D space were done. The issue of potential effect on engineering structures of recorded vibrations was raised. The impact based on Scale of Dynamic Effects standard was estimated in the article. Vibration intensity results were also compared with classification according to the Swiss Standard.
The hereby paper discusses the influence of cable length on the SHM systems with the use of vibrating wire dynamic measurements. Vibrating wire sensors are mainly used for measuring stable or slowly changing strains, e.g. system installed on Rędziński Bridge in Wroclaw. From some time applications of these sensors for measuring dynamic deformations are becoming popular. Such tests were conducted on STS Fryderyk Chopin. New solutions generate new problems. In this case: the operational stability of systems exciting wire vibrations. The structure of such sensors and the electric cables length has an essential influence on their operations, what is undertaken in the paper. The subject of investigations constitutes the measuring system based on self-exciting impulse exciter, for which impedance parameters of electric cables and of the vibrating wire sensor were the most essential. The mathematical model of the system, experimental verification of the model as well as the results of theoretical analyses at the application of electric cables of various lengths are presented in the paper.
Development of the transport infrastructure in Poland has contributed to the implementation of various technologies of construction of bridges and their components. Use of reinforced soil for construction of embankments, retaining structures (RSS walls) and abutments is one of the solutions which has been frequently used for the past twenty years. Shortly after its development, the technology proposed by Henri Vidal in 1966 also gained appreciation in Poland . Reinforced soil bridge abutments started to be widely used in Poland at the turn of the 20th century. The bridge facilities at the junction of Trasa Siekierkowska route and Wał Miedzeszyński Street in Warsaw, which were built in the years 2000÷2002, are an example of structures from that period. The authors of this paper have been particularly interested in the outermost supports of the reinforced concrete flyovers which were constructed in the form of intermediate reinforced soil abutments. Offsets – the vertical displacements, in the range of 15÷25mm, emerging between the level of the road surface and the steel elements of the expansion joints which separate the flyover’s structure from the embankment – were observed in 2015, in the course of regular inspections. While accounting for the observations which have been made, the surveying measurements and the ground investigation, the paper diagnoses and describes the mechanism which led to the emergence of the offsets. Potential patterns of the occurrence of additional settlements, as the reason for emergence of the offsets, were identified and analyzed. The settlement of the outermost support (abutment), as a result of increase of relative density of alluvial sands due to the dynamic interaction of the roadways of Wał Miedzeszyński Street, was analyzed. Analytical and numeric approaches were used in the course of analysis while relying on PLAXIS and MIDAS software.
The article presents the results of the research on thermal actions on the materials occurring in the cross section along the depth of the bridge deck and bituminous pavement during its construction. The impulse to curried out the research was the need to explain the causes of the blistering of bituminous waterproofing membranes and asphalt pavements often observed on the bridge decks. The paper presents the examples of such failures and the analyses of possible mechanisms of the phenomenon. Research indicates a significant influence of all technological processes on the temperature of materials in the cross section as well as daily temperature changes. The probability of initiation of reactions between concrete components with gaseous products has been confirmed in such conditions. The susceptibility of bituminous materials to gas emission and blistering is the subject of a separate study. The research was part of a research project carried out under the contract INNOTECHK3/IN3/50/229332/NCBR /14 .
The main problem of tunnelling with use of TBM in highly dense urban areas is to assign the range of subsiding trough and the impact of tunnelling works on existing buildings and underground or road infrastructure. The paper presents the results of settlements calculations over twin tube metro tunnel using analytical, empirical methods. The tunnel external diameter is 6,5 m ; the overburden vary from 5 m to 8 m ; the distance between tunnel axis is 14 m. Because of quaternary soils and high water table level the TBM type EBP was chosen as the method of tunnel construction. At the length of 502 m of tunnel the monitoring system was carried out in 22 cross sections. The results of settlements monitoring were compared with the values of analytical calculations.
Buildings consume half of all energy use and are also responsible for a similar proportion of carbon dioxide emission. The heat transfer across the building envelope - the shell of a house that separates the inside and outside - should generally be minimized. In the paper validation and verification based on Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) of Energy3D computer code is presented. Next, computations performed by means of Energy 3D and Energy Plus for BESTEST building are compared. In the last part of the paper results for computations for real building are presented. Program Energy 3D proved to be an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of buildings with respect to energy consumption.
A review of mechanical models of road pavements in the form of a proposal of classification of these models is presented. It is assumed an autonomy of the following elements of pavement model: the models of structural layers, the subgrade model, the interlayer bonding models, including bonding of pavement structure with its subgrade, the models of external impacts on pavement layers, including load of heavy traffic, the models of pavement environment impacts on structural layers’ borders (lateral) and subgrade borders (including the lower one) – according to the selected criteria such as structural criterion, material criterion (physical criterion), dimension criterion and model scope (purpose) criterion − in the frame of assumptions of the classical Newtonian deterministic mechanics. The presented attempt to classify mechanical models of road pavements supports to orientate the roadmen community within a scope of the mechanistic modelling of these structures.
The paper presents a description and results of a study focused on the applicability of the sclerometric method to the preliminary assessment of concrete quality in structures after fire. Due to the high thermal inertia, concrete has non-uniform properties in the heated element cross-section. The greatest reduction of concrete compressive strength occurs on the heated surface. When assessing a structure after a fire, it is particularly important to determine the thickness of the damaged external concrete layer. Reinforced concrete beams exposed to high temperature on one side (a one-way heat transfer in the cross-section) for 0 (unheated element), 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes were examined. A significant decrease of the rebound number on the elements heated surface was observed, depending on the heating duration. The obtained values of the relative rebound number reduction were comparable to the values of relative compressive strength decrease (determined on the basis of temperature) of concrete situated 15 mm from the heated surface.
The paper presents results of the laboratory tests made for the prototype resilient under sleeper pads in the Warsaw University of Technology laboratory unit. These pads are dedicated to reduce vibrations transmitted to the vicinity of the railroad and to improve the resistance of the railroad structure. The laboratory testing program was carried out for elastomeric materials (polyurethane and rubber based) due to the PN-EN 16730 standard. The obtained values of the key parameters were used in order to determine the insertion loss vibration level by applying analytical method. The paper presents the influence of selected parameters i.e. static and dynamic moduli on the reduction of vibration and structure-borne sound level.
This paper is entirely devoted to practical aspects of direct design and assessment of safety and serviceability of steel planar framework using advanced analysis. The development of advanced analysis has been driven by a desire for a more accurate representation of the behaviour of planar framework by considering the beam and spring numerical modelling technique together with plasticity and geometrically nonlinear effects as well as structural imperfections accounted for. The validated 2D version of CSD advanced analysis developed by the author is used in this paper for its practical application towards the resistance and serviceability assessment of existing simple construction framework. This steel braced frame was a subject of technical expertise. The same structure geometry but with different joint detailing is then considered to show how the effect of joint properties may affect the braced frame performance. Results of investigations are presented in the form of frame global response at both the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state, and also in the form of member local responses. Conclusions with regard to general design and assessment practice are drawn.
The paper presents research program of bond between glass fiber reinforced polymer bars and concrete in reference to the steel bars. Bond between the reinforcement and concrete is a crucial parameter governing a behaviour of reinforced concrete members and transferring of the internal forces from concrete to the reinforcement. The use of FRP bars as an equivalent reinforcement to steel in concrete structures has increased in recent years. The FRP bars are very different from steel, mainly due to much lower elasticity modulus and their anisotropic structure. Good performance of FRP reinforced concrete requires sufficient interfacial bond between bars and concrete. However, there are no specific standards referring to the surface preparation of these bars, that leads to variable bond behaviour of the composite reinforcement to the concrete. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of variable parameters on the bond behaviour to concrete. The experimental program consisted of eighteen beam bond specimens varying in: bar diameter (12 mm, 16 mm, 18 mm) and type of reinforcement (GFRP sand – coated and steel bars). Although the GFRP bars indicated good bond behaviour to concrete, the average bond strength was slightly lower than that of steel reinforcement of 16mm and 18 mm, while it was higher for the GFRP bars of 12 mm diameter.
Fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) due to their specific high-strength properties become more and more popular and replace traditional structural materials like conventional steel in prestressed concrete structures. FRP reinforced structures are relatively new when compared to structures prestressed with steel tendons. For that reason only several studies and applications of pre-tensioned FRP reinforcement have been conducted until now. Moreover, researchers only considered short-term behavior of FRP reinforced concrete members. The precise information about long-term behavior of FRP reinforcement is necessary to evaluate the prestress losses, which should be taken into account in the design of prestressed RC structures. One of the most important factor influencing long term behavior of FRP reinforcement is stress relaxation. The overview of experimental tests results described in the available literature considering the prestress losses obtained in FRP prestressed concrete members is presented herein.
The aim of the paper is to investigate the shear failure mechanisms in T-shape, single span and simply supported beams exclusively reinforced with longitudinal glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Usually the critical shear crack in RC beams without stirrups develops through the theoretical compression strut reducing the shear strength following the shear failure. The main parameter affecting the crack pattern and the shear strength of the beams is the shear slenderness. However, the test results presented in the paper indicated the new arching effect due to the bond losing between the GFRP flexural reinforcement and concrete. This failure mode revealed unexpected critical crack pattern and failure mode. The research of concrete beams flexurally reinforced with GFRP bars without stirrups indicated two failure modes: typical shear-compression and a new one leading by the bond losing between the ordinary reinforcement and concrete.
Increasingly complex design systems require an individual approach when determining the necessary design parameters. As soils are characterized by strong strain-dependent nonlinearity, test methods used to characterize the subsoil should be carefully selected, in terms of their "sensitivity" as well as suitability for the analyzed type of problem. When direct measurements are not available, while design calculation models require specific parameters, indirect parameter estimation may be used. This approach requires calibration and validation of empirical correlations, based on well documented database of tests and case studies. One of the parameters often used, when analyzing soil-structure interaction problems, is the shear stiffness of the soil and its strain-dependent degradation. The aim of the article is to present the procedure for description and evaluation of soil stiffness based on field tests (CPTU, DMT and SDMT) and a large number of reference curves obtained from laboratory tests (TRX) for selected soil types. On the basis of the given algorithm, it is possible to obtain a stiffness module G0 value at any level of deformation, based on in-situ tests.
The aim of the study was to develop a practical approach to parametric shaping of spatial steel rod structures formed based on a hyperbolic paraboloid. This design approach was realized by application of designing tools working in environment of Rhinoceros 3D, that is its plug-in Grasshopper for geometric modelling and Karamba 3D for structural analysis. The goal of this research was to elaborate an universal scripts in order to create rod structures‘ models of various forms and grid patterns, as well as evaluating their structural behaviour dependently on various boundary conditions. The optimisation criterion was the minimum mass and deflection. Several proposals of coverings by means of single layer grid structures were presented and analysed to choose the best solution. The rod structures generated based on a hyperbolic paraboloid turned out to be structures with good static properties, so may be an interesting proposals to cover large areas.
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