Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 2 |

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Bibliography

1. https://shellbuckling.com/cv/trahair.pdf - Tribute by Profs. Mark A. Bradford and Gregory J. Hancock to Prof. Nick Trahair on his retirement in 1998.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.A. Giżejowski
1
J. Papangelis
2

  1. Prof., DSc., PhD., C. Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. PhD., C. Eng., Research and Consulting, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006,Australia
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Abstract

Double corrugated, self-supporting K-span arch structures are now commonly used globally to make roofs for building structures, as an alternative to traditional solutions. The K-span system has become popular mainly due to the simple and cheap method of its manufacturing and quick installation. Nowadays, new versions of the system are created but still there is no valid design method. Design difficulties are among the causes of failures or even collapses of such structures. Back in the 1970s, the first studies were developed concerning computational analyses of double corrugated arch roofs. They laid grounds for the development of contemporary K-span system technology but have since lost their practical advantages due to changing engineering conditions. The paper presents a review of research and computational methods concerning double corrugated arch structures. The paper discusses selected scientific studies, which were used as the basis for the development of research and computational methods, and their contemporary continuation. Directions for further research and analyses are also presented which could contribute to the future development of science and engineering in the area and could provide inspiration for future studies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Piekarczuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Przemysław Więch
2
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Kuczyński
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ryszard Walentyński
3

  1. Assoc. Prof. DSc., PhD., Eng., Building Research Institute (Instytut Techniki Budowlanej), Filtrowa-1, 00-611 Warsaw
  2. PhD., Eng., Building Research Institute (Instytut Techniki Budowlanej), Filtrowa-1, 00-611 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Assoc. Prof. DSc., PhD., Eng., Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, the effects of replacing fine aggregate by granulated lead/zinc slag waste (GLZSW) on the thickness of concrete shields against X-ray radiation and on the compressive strength of concrete have been investigated. The fine aggregate was substituted by GLZSW in four percentages: 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (by weight). The first aim of the present study was to compare the thicknesses of concretes with GLZSW and control concrete using Lead Equivalent (LE). The second aim was to assess the effects of replacing fine aggregate by GLZSW on the compressive strength of concrete. Results of this study indicated that the compressive strength of mixed concretes increased significantly compared to the control upon replacing fine aggregate by GLZSW; the mixture containing 100% GLZSW had the greatest compressive strength. Further, the inclusion of GLZSW as a substitute for fine aggregate increased the radiation attenuation properties and consequently decreased the thickness of concrete shields in direct proportion to the mixing ratio of GLZSW. The results revealed that concrete mixes containing 100% GLZSW offered the greatest reduction in shield thickness. The study shows that there is a promising future for the use of GLZSW as substitute for fine aggregate in concrete used to shield against X-ray radiation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Alwaeli
1

  1. Assoc. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Mohamed Alwaeli, Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Konarskiego 18A, 44-100 Gliwice
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Abstract

Occurrences associated with the phenomena of climate change are increasingly visible. Effects of progressive environmental pollution are monitored with growing concern. Still, in the construction sector, the choice of sustainable materials and the knowledge concerning them is insignificant. Studies have shown that single-family residential buildings form the largest share of new buildings in Central European countries. It should be assumed that it is the improvement of this particular section of the construction sector to be the goal of further development of societies. This paper presents a case study of the construction of a house using straw - a material that, on the one hand, is a product associated with local tradition, while significantly reducing carbon footprint of its production and use, on the other. The construction of a prototypical house with the application of composite technology, i.e. timber framing with straw bale infill, was compared with a conventional method (ceramic masonry units) which is currently the most popular choice for building single-family houses in Poland. The study is based on the building’s life cycle assessment (LCA) over its consecutive phases as a tested and reliable method of the verification of a material’s impact on the environment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Kozień-Woźniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marta Fąfara
2
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Łukaszewski
3
ORCID: ORCID
Eliza Owczarek
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Gierbienis
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Arch., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Cracow, Poland
  2. PhD., Eng., Arch., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Cracow, Poland
  3. PhD., Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Cracow, Poland
  4. MSc., Eng., Arch., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-115 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

The paper examines the impact of possible operational factors on strength and frequency parameters generated by bending of fibre-cement panels. The tests were performed on elements cut out of a standard commercially available panel. The samples were exposed to factors described as environmental (soaking in water, bath-drying cycles, freeze-thawing cycles) and unique (flame ignition and high temperature exposure) and then subjected to three-point bending tests. Acoustic emission (AE) signals were acquired during the external load application. After the measurements were completed, the strength of individual elements was determined and the frequencies generated during bending were calculated. The obtained results were analysed statistically. Comparing the results obtained for a group of samples subjected to environmental and unique factors, significant differences between them were noted. It was noted that the decrease in the strength of the samples is related to the emission of lower frequency sounds. It was found that the application of the presented methodology allows to determine the condition of the fibre-cement boards in use.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Adamczak-Bugno
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aleksandra Krampikowska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. MSc., Eng., Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce,
  2. PhD., Eng., Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the research is the laboratory investigation of steel-aluminium brackets employed to fasten lightweight curtain walls to building facilities. Static pressure, suction forces, and cyclic loads parallel to end plates (horizontal – to simulate wind influence) were applied in the study. The steel-aluminium brackets were tested on a reinforced concrete substrate made of C30/37 concrete class to simulate the real working conditions. Laboratory tests were performed to failure of the brackets or damage of anchoring fastened to the concrete elements. Additionally, the tensile capacity of stainless steel bolt connections screwed in aluminium profile was determined. The uniaxial tensile tests were performed for three length variants of the anchorage: 28 mm, 14 mm, and 7 mm of the stainless steel bars screw-in in threading aluminium profiles. In the course of cyclic tests, a hinge formed in the location of bolt connections made the change of the working character of steel-aluminium brackets. The cyclic tests also showed the danger of the strap aluminium profile displacement due to improper connection with the main aluminium profile. The paper is intended to provide scientists, civil engineers, and designers with an experimental assessment of mechanical properties of steel-aluminium brackets under static and cyclic loads.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Ambroziak
1

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Prof. GUT, Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

Every day on roads many scenarios of accidents may occur. One of the measures to minimize their consequences is road safety barriers. Finite Element analyses are being increasingly used to support the physical testing of these devices. The paper addresses the issue of a secondary impact into the previously damaged w-beam guardrail system. This situation belongs to one of the most dangerous which can happen on roads and may cause serious hazards, especially if the vehicle goes through the barrier. To evaluate the crashworthiness of the road barrier, the computational model of the crash test was developed and validated against the full-scale crash test. Then two simulations of TB32 crash tests were conducted on both damaged and undamaged road barriers to assess the influence of damage on the effectiveness of the safety system during vehicular impact. The study has revealed that the partially damaged system preserved some of its original functionality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Wilde
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dawid Bruski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Stanisław Burzyński
3
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Chróścielewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Pachocki
2
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Witkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233, Gdańsk
  2. MSc., Eng., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul. Narutowicza11/12, 80-233, Gdańsk, Poland
  3. PhD., Eng., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul. Narutowicza11/12, 80-233, Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

In this work, safety analysis at the railway level crossings is presented using advanced mathematical modelling. Resistivity of track subgrade panels is taken into account. The analysis does not refer to the assessment of the current regulations. Specific cases of generalized dynamic system are considered by introducing operations S=Δ, S=P defined in space C(N) of real sequences. In this model, generalized discrete exponential and trigonometric functions that reflect the oscillatory nature of the analysed quantities are used. The advantage of the analyzes is the avoidance of numerical errors. We show also the importance of the resistivity of track subgrade panels in safety at the level crossings. The safety at the level crossings can be increased through providing track subgrade panels with appropriate resistivity to minimize negative effect of stray currents. The results may be used to evaluate selected safety indicators as well as to predict safety levels and to determine the ways of improving safety.
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Authors and Affiliations

Eligiusz Mieloszyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anita Milewska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sławomir Grulkowski
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, G. Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. PhD., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, G. Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
  3. PhD., Eng., Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, G. Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

Structural safety is a concept defined in various ways, usually in an imprecise and qualitative manner. The article refers to the more important concepts and methods of structural safety assessment and presents an original proposal for a multi-faced assessment of this feature. Suggested procedure allows to take into account most of the key properties determining the safety of structures, including reliability, risk, resistance and robustness, random and non-random uncertainty of state variables and assessment criteria, potential consequences of failure, and makes possible the visualization of the results. Using the concept of fuzzy numbers, fuzzy statistics and the approximate reasoning scheme it enable to take into account subjective and qualitative information about the state variables, safety criteria, computational method, the professional knowledge and intuition of the designer. The application of the proposed procedure is illustrated on the example of the safety assessment of a reinforced concrete beam designed for flexure. The proposed procedure may be useful at the stage of conceptual design of building structures, as well as for assessing the safety of existing structures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szczepan Woliński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil an Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Al. Powstańców Warszawa 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Abstract

Main goal of this paper is to present results of the numerical simulations of a real-scale gabion retaining wall tests. 4.5 m high wall was loaded and unloaded with water pressure, displacements of the crest of the wall were measured. Finite Element Method was used to simulate experiment and obtained results are compared with experimental ones. Usage of homogenized Coulomb-Mohr type continuum for gabions is proposed. Strength parameters of the model (cohesion and friction angle) are estimated on the base of large scale triaxial tests of the gabions and static tensile tests of the mesh. Influence of the “cut-off” condition on obtained results is analyzed. Elastic model for gabions is used for comparison of the results. Interface elements and truss joints between the gabions are used to simulate joints between gabions with limited strength. Good correlation between displacements obtained in experiment and numerical simulations was observed, especially in loading phase, so presented methodology of numerical modelling allows to model gabion retaining walls behavior close to the reality and could be used in engineering practice.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Grodecki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 34-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

Columns perform a fundamental function in structures and studies on their reliability significantly impact structural safety. While the resistance and reliability models of rectangular reinforced concrete columns are addressed by many researchers, not much work has been done on the topic of columns with a circular cross-section. In this paper, a reliability model of resistance for circular reinforced concrete columns is formulated. A procedure for the representation of behaviour for short circular reinforced concrete eccentrically loaded columns is developed. It enables the consideration of many parameters including diameter of the column, concrete compressive strength, steel yielding strength, modulus of elasticity of steel, number of rebars, size of reinforcement, and position of bars in the cross-section given by the initial angle of rotation for the reinforcement. The representative design cases are selected for the most common four compressive strengths of concrete and five different reinforcement ratios. In total one hundred design cases are investigated. Statistical parameters of resistance, coefficient of variation and bias factor, are determined using the developed procedure and Monte Carlo simulations. A total of 10,000 full interaction diagrams of force and bending moment are generated for each design case. In each of the design cases, the failure zones are determined and the statistical parameters of resistance are calculated. The results are summarized in a table, presented in the forms of three-dimensional plots, and discussed. The study is performed based on American statistical data, materials and design codes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz A. Lutomirski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marta Lutomirska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Gaz-System S.A., ul. Jana Kazimierza 578, 05-126 Nieporęt, Rembelszczyzna, Poland
  2. PhD., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw
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Abstract

The paper presents the case study of geotechnical investigations reporting connected with expert’s opinion on undrained shear strength of organic sediments in the river valley at the north of Poland according to reinforcement methodology of c.a. 0,7 km highway embankment. Diversification of primary results caused additional research which revealed and confirmed liquid consistency of organic soils – several meters of organic and calcareous sediments – gyttja under the thin cover of peat. The main goal of the paper is a discussion on standardization of consistency of organic soils itself and additionally to point out very rare possibility of liquid consistency, finally not pointed in International Standards ISO 14688. The application of Atterberg limits in organic sediments is moot but even organic soil with water content higher than liquid limit can’t be classified and interpreted as very soft with description as soil which exudes between the fingers when squeezed in the hand. Such identification is practically impossible when it’s hard to squeeze because of gravitationally leaking through the fingers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Kacprzak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Pietrzykowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Želmir Veinović
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. PhD., University of Ecology and Management, Faculty of Architecture, ul. Olszewska 12, 00-792 Warsaw, Poland
  3. PhD., Sc., Eng. Ass. Prof., University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mining Geology and Petroleum Engineering, Pierottijeva 6, p.p. 390, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Abstract

Recent research has shown that the increase in a number of participants of construction project elevated the cost and duration of construction. The use of integrated project delivery and the formation of a network organization structure can significantly reduce the costs, as the activities of the participants become more coherent and coordinated. The optimization of decisions is essential for the efficiency of a negotiation process, which in turn depends on the organizational structure. The article specifies three basic types of network organizational structure that can be applied in a construction project: focal (F1), dynamic (F2), multifocal (F3). In this study, a direct assessment of possible effectiveness of each of the three types of network organizational structures was carried out using a vector decision model. For each of the above-mentioned types of organizational structures, the potential effectiveness of negotiating act f0 and the total potential effectiveness F0 was calculated. The results of the study show that the most effective type of network organizational structure is the multifocal collective decisions in which a project manager has several “assistants”.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Trach
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mieczysław Połoński
2
ORCID: ORCID
Petro Hrytsiuk
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Prof. PhD. Eng., Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, Nowoursynowska 159,02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Prof. PhD., National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Soborna 11, 33028 Rivne, Ukraine
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Abstract

Hundreds or even thousands of defects can be found during the building acceptance, hence the need for solutions which will facilitate the defect management, including identification, costing and repair. The aim of the paper is to present the possible use of BIM to support the defect management process during the acceptance of apartments in multifamily residential buildings. The paper presents a concept of quality control support application called MWBIM (Map of Knowledge BIM) which will collect data about discovered construction defects, their recording and servicing with the BIM technology. MWBIM will run based on Building Information Modelling (BIM), Augmented Reality (AR), Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and maps of knowledge. There are three phases in the operation of the application: preparatory phase (planning the order of acceptance meetings and elements to be checked), acceptance phase (data collection and assigning them to the building information model) and the reporting phase (reports generation, assigning defects to contractors, follow-up of repair status). The intended uses of the application are mainly personnel involved in the acceptance of apartments.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sebastian Biel
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. MSc., Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Division of Management in Civil Engineering (L-7), Warszawska 24 Street, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

In the structural reinforcement of a high-rise residential building in Changzhou city, Jiangsu province, China, the technology of prestressed steel bar strengthening shear wall, which was initiated in China, was applied. Combined with the engineering quality inspection report, the project characteristics and the requirements of the construction party, various methods, such as increasing cross-section reinforcement method and staged replacement concrete reinforcement method, were comprehensively used to treat and reinforce the structures with different quality problems and different parts. In general, the stress and strain of the newly added part always lags behind the stress and strain of the original structure. This will cause the stress of the original structure is too high and the deformation is large, while the stress of the new part is still at a low level, which cannot fully play its role and its due reinforcement effect. Prestressed steel bar reinforced shear wall technology, through the prestressed steel bar on the prestressed steel bar, which is a good solution to this problem, avoid the phenomenon of stress lag, and ultimately not only shorten the construction period of reinforcement, but also ensure the quality of reinforcement and user use area, successfully passed the reinforcement special acceptance. The monitoring data also proved that the reinforcement measures adopted are safe, reliable and economical. This paper can provide reference for the effective development of similar reinforcement projects.
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Authors and Affiliations

Cheng Heping
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yao Wenchi
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., Changzhou Vocational Institute of Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164, China
  2. Eng., Jiangsu Digital Construction Engineering Research Center, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164, China
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Abstract

This article discusses the rheological tests and analyses based on the Schapery non-linear viscoelasticity model that were performed to study asphalt mastic behaviour under high shear stresses. Seven mineral filler types were applied in this study, including a mixed filler with hydrated lime and fillers derived from dust extraction systems. Determination of basic properties of the fillers was followed by creep and recovery tests (DSR) at different levels of shear stress conducted in accordance with a modified MSCR procedure. The first stage in the analysis was the identification of linear viscoelastic region and the non-linear viscoelasticity model parameters such as the length of the loading period, the temperature and the stress level using TTSSP (Time-Temperature- Stress Superposition Principle). Subsequent numerical simulations of strain variation with respect to stress confirmed a high degree of agreement between the non-linear viscoelasticity model and mastic sample behaviour. A strong correlation was found between the non-linear viscoelasticity parameters and mastic properties. The proposed methodology is able to quickly identify and eliminate the fillers that may contribute to HMA deformations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Mazurek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. D.Sc., PhD., Eng., Kielce University of Technology, Aleja Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

Amount of works and activities tending towards defining new transport mode on the basis of the hyperloop system concept is growing significantly. They assume use of individual vehicles, offering space for several dozen passengers, running with speeds near speed of sound in a closed space with significantly lowered air pressure, utilizing magnetic levitation. Simultaneously it is fairly from economic point of view assumed, that first implementations should link locations between which traffic demand is expected to be very high. Assumed short spacing between hyper-vehicles, which are frequently declared to be ad-hoc adjusted to transport demand, to the knowledge of the authors gained in railway transport, seems to be in conflict with high speed safety related spacing in view of the line infrastructure capacity operational rules defined in the UIC (International Union of Railways) documents. That is the challenge, that formed the basis for authors’ investigations described in the paper. Several thesis regarding future new mode of transport based on hyperloop concept form an outcome of those investigations presented in conclusions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Pawlik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Magdalena Kycko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Konrad Zakrzewski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Assistant professor, PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. M.Sc., Eng., Railway Research Institute, Chłopickiego 50, 04-275 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The safety of the masonry structure is determined by the value of the partial factor used, which is influenced by many factors. The variability of these factors determines obtaining significant differences in the load levels of various masonry structures. Hence, the analysis of masonry structures should be carried out taking into account a sufficient range of variability of factors affecting its safety. The article presents a multi-stage safety analysis of an exemplary brick masonry column. For the construction, the relationship between partial factors used for interactions in different configurations and factors for the masonry compressive strength was examined. The analyses consisted in determining the reliability index beta with the Monte Carlo method. The article presents the results of experimental tests carried out on a real construction, as well as the results of FEM numerical simulations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Zięba
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lidia Buda-Ożóg
2
ORCID: ORCID
Izabela Skrzypczak
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. MSc., Eng., Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Building Structures, Poznańska 2, Rzeszów 35-084, Poland
  2. DSc., PhD., Eng., Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Building Structures, Poznańska 2, Rzeszów 35-084, Poland
  3. DSc., PhD., Eng., Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Geodesy and Geotechnics, Poznańska 2, Rzeszów, 35-084, Poland
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Abstract

Investments in made ground are a big problem. The present investigation concerns ground derived from limestone treatment waste from SOLVAY soda plants. This waste is deposited in the southern area of Krakow in a reservoir called ‘White Seas’ in an area of approximately 15 ha. Currently, part of the route and tram investment, ‘The Łagiewniki Route’ Currently through the ‘White Seas’ area. The article presents an analysis of a section of this route by a high and steep slope made from made ground. The first stage of the in-situ measurements was to scan the shape of the high slope with the RIEGL VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner. It was necessary to obtain the shape of the slope for numerical modelling using the FEM method. The point cloud perfectly reflected the shape of the slope with an accuracy of 5 mm. Soil samples (limestone waste) were also collected in the area of the slope for laboratory tests. In order to determine the effective strength parameters of the made ground of the embankment, a series of tests was carried out using triaxial compression apparatus. All triaxial tests were performed in accordance with British Standard 1337 Part 8. Modelling was performed using an FEM finite element method in MIDAS. The analyses also included the variant of irrigation of made ground. The conducted research shows that the high and steep slope made from calcareous waste indicates stability. The irrigated land did not make the high escarpment unstable.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Pilecka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jakub Zięba
2
ORCID: ORCID
Dariusz Szwarkowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Prof. of CUT, Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
  2. MSc., Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

In recent years, we have been able to observe a dynamic development of MCDA (multi-criteria decision analysis) methods, which have become widely used in various sectors, including construction. These methods are characterised by simplicity and one of their key advantages is their simple modelling of non-linear dependencies within decision problems and their analysis under the conditions of incomplete, uncertain and hard-to-measure information. The universality and simple use of these methods does not, however, free the decision-maker from the necessity to adopt the proper approach to modelling and analysing specific decision problems. To highlight the fact that it is the character of the problem that should determine the selection of the method of analysing it and not the other way around, the authors assessed the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the ANP (Analytic Network Process) method in terms of verifying the impact of the different decision model structures on analysis outcomes and analysed their sensitivity to input data changes. This analysis was based on the example of selecting a telecommunications tower footing reinforcement alternative. The findings confirmed the significant impact of decision model structure on the ranking of the analysed alternatives.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Szewczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Grzegorz Śladowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kamil Ratoń
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 24 Warszawska Street, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  2. MSc., Eng., PIB Constructor, 100/104 Balicka Street, 30-149 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

Over the past decades, using of sustainable materials in construction is a challenging issue, thus Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) took the attention of civil and structural engineers for its lightweight and high-strength properties. The paper describes the results of the shear strength testing of three different types of bars: (i) basalt- FRP (BFRP), (ii) hybrid FRP with carbon and basalt fibres (HFRP) and (iii) nano-hybrid FRP (nHFRP), with modification of the epoxy matrix of the bar. The hybridization of carbon and basalt fibres lead to more costefficient alternative than Carbon FRP (CFRP) bars and more sustainable alternative than Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars. The BFRP, HFRP and nHFRP bars with different diameters ranging from Ø4 to Ø18 mm were subjected to shear strength testing in order to investigate mechanical properties and the destruction mechanism of the bars. Obtained results display a slight downward trend as the bar diameter increase, which is the most noticeable for HFRP bars. In most of the cases, BFRP bars were characterized by greater shear deformation and less shear strength compared to HFRP and nHFRP bars. Performed testing may contribute to comprehensive understanding of the mechanical behavior of those types of FRP bars.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kostiantyn Protchenko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Fares Zayoud
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marek Urbański
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. MSc., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. BSc., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  3. PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Double-beam model is considered in many investigations both theoretical and typically engineering ones. One can find different studies concerning analysis of such structures behaviour, especially in the cases where the system is subjected to dynamic excitations. This kind of model is successfully considered as a reliable representation of railway track. Inclusion of nonlinear physical and geometrical properties of rail track components has been justified by various computational studies and theoretical analyses. In order to properly describe behaviour of real structures their nonlinear properties cannot be omitted. Therefore a necessity to search appropriate analytical nonlinear models is recognized and highlighted in published literature. This paper presents essential extension of previously carried out double-beam system analysis. Two nonlinear factors are taken into account and parametrical analysis of the semi-analytical solution is undertaken with special emphasis on different range of parameters describing nonlinear stiffness of foundation and layer between beams. This study is extended by preliminary discussion regarding the dynamic effects produced by a series of loads moving along the upper beam. A new solution for the case of several forces acting on the upper beam with different frequencies of their variations in time is presented and briefly discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Koziol
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Pilecki
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD, DSc, Assoc. Prof., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
  2. MSc, Eng., former student of Cracow University of Technology
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Abstract

The paper deals with coupled flexural-torsional vibrations of straight prismatic elastic bars made of a linearly elastic isotropic and homogeneous material. One of the aims is to develop an effective method of modelling vibrations of train rails of cross-sections being mono-symmetric, taking into account warping due to torsion as well as transverse shear deformations. The Librescu-Song 1D model has been appropriately adapted to the above research aims by incorporating all the inertia terms corresponding to the kinematic hypotheses. The finite element(FE) program has been written and its correctness has been verified. The results concerning natural vibrations compare favourably with those predicted by 3D FE modelling using dense meshes. The paper proves that neglecting warping due to torsion leads to omitting several eigen-modes of vibrations, thus showing that the popular Timoshenko-like models are useless for the vibration analysis of bars of mono-symmetric cross sections.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sławomir Czarnecki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Lewiński
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The main purpose of the present paper is to distinguish water located in various types of pores contained within cement paste. The water sorption isotherm is the starting point of the experimental analysis. The investigation was conducted employing the conventional gravimetric method on cement paste composed with w/c=0.5. The investigation was conducted for the following relative humidity values: 11%, 54%, 75%, 84%, 93%, 97% and 100%. Once samples reached the equilibrium water content they were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which enabled us to record exothermic peaks corresponding to the crystallization of different water portions. Moreover, we intended to investigate the thermodynamic characteristics of the liquid phase confined within cementitious materials. Hence, the artificial pore solution was prepared. In order to determine the phase transition temperature and the amount of formed ice, the solution was used to saturate silica gel, which is a chemically passive material. Then the thermal analysis was conducted.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Koniorczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dalia Bednarska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Alicja Wieczorek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Konca
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, 90 - 924 Al. Politechniki 6, Poland
  2. PhD., Eng., Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, 90 - 924 Al. Politechniki 6, Poland
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Abstract

The construction industry of Ukraine has a number of problems and barriers that hinder its development. The main problems affecting Ukraine are corruption, high level of opacity, inefficient use of resources and inefficient process management. Moreover, ineffective design and construction management reduce labor productivity and leads to reworks. Unfortunately, in Ukrainian construction industry most cases of rework have been accepted as a part of construction activities. Rework is one of the main factors in the growth of total costs and the excess of the schedule for the construction project. The problem of rework costs is important and needs to be studied more to alleviate these overruns in the future. However, rework data are usually quite difficult to obtain and most studies have been conducted in developed countries. It can be assumed that there is a greater probability of reworks and rework costs in developing countries than in the developed ones. Thus, the purpose of this article was to determine and systematize reworks factors, quantify amount of direct rework costs, determine the relationship between actual project costs, project duration variation and rework costs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Trach
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marzena Lendo-Siwicka
2
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Pawluk
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mieczysław Połoński
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  2. PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Prof. PhD. Eng., Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

More than 6 billion square metres of new buildings are built each year. This is about 1.2 million buildings. If we translate these figures into carbon footprint (CF) generated during the construction, it will be approximately 3.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide. The contractors all over the world – also in Poland – decide to calculate the carbon footprint for various reasons, but mostly they are compelled to do so by the market. The analysis of costs and emissions of greenhouse gases for individual phases of the construction system allows implementing solutions and preventing a negative impact on the environment without increasing the construction costs. The share of each phase in the amount of produced carbon for construction and use of the building depends mainly on the used materials and applied design solutions. Hence, the materials and solutions with lesser carbon footprint should be used. It can be achieved by using natural materials or materials which do not need much energy to be produced. The author will attempt to outline this idea and present examples of integrated analysis of costs and amount of carbon footprint during the building lifecycle.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Zima
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Prof. CUT, Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Calcium Sulfoaluminate cements (CSA) may be an alternative to Portland cements due to their very high early strength and more environmentally friendly production technology, however they are characterized by a short setting time and high cost. A possible solution to these problems is to mix CSA cement with other binders or additives. In order to test this possibility, CSA cement was mixed with Portland cement and limestone in the amount of 10, 20 and 30 wt. %. A hydration heat test was carried out in the first 72 hours after the components were mixed, measured were compressive and flexural strength after 1, 2, 7 and 28 days, and rheological properties, including early shrinkage. A negative interaction between CSA and CEM I 42.5R was observed, leading to deterioration of mechanical properties of the mortars. The study did not indicate a similar negative interaction between CSA cement and limestone.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Gołaszewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Gołaszewska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. PhD., Eng., Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

By analyzing the individual stages of the building's life cycle, it can be easily concluded that the building's exploitation process is the longest and at the same time it is the justification for the construction project related to the construction of this building. In the course of the building's exploitation, various phenomena occur that affect its condition and thus the possibility of unlimited use. These are natural phenomena, as well as phenomena derived from external influences, which often lead to deterioration of the building's condition, or even its degradation. In response to these phenomena, maintenance, renovation and modernization activities are undertaken. Technical management is related to the identification of these phenomena, programming of adequate measures and their implementation. The conducted analysis of the results of the survey in the group of property managers allows to state categorically that the process of technical management is relatively little supported by IT tools and is still based on individual analysis and often intuitive actions. The article presents the possibilities of applying an innovative approach in the acquisition and collection of information about the technical condition of buildings, indicating the legitimacy of standardizing information forms and using them in building a database of cases of the CBR (case based reasoning) inference system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Gajzler
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, Ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

In the literature, researchers present construction projects as temporary self-organising coalition networks, composed of specialist entities that work towards set goals. The number of parties involved in the various processes during construction causes communications relations to be exceedingly complex and to change. The environment of a construction project is dynamic and complex, and self-organising communication networks are sensitive to institutional and social change. It becomes necessary to identify situations rooted in both insufficient communication during the carrying out of a project and its excess, which generates unnecessary cost. Effective control of information flow within self-organising communication networks through its planning and monitoring by project management can contribute to achieving project goals. This paper presents a proposal of an optimisation approach (in terms of minimising communication costs) to information flow planning that accounts for various constraints, on the example of a real-world case of building a housing complex in Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewelina Kania
1
ORCID: ORCID
Grzegorz Śladowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Elżbieta Radziszewska-Zielina
3
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Sroka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Szewczyk
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. MSc. Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  2. PhD. Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  3. Prof. PhD. Eng., Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

The subject matter of the article comprises cement-bentonite-water hardening slurries with an addition of fluidized-bed fly-ash resulting from the combustion of hard and brown coal. The main objective of the study was to determine the filtration resistance of hardening slurries in the context of long-term exposure to the filtration of an aggressive substance in relation to a cement binder. A nitric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 0.5 M was used, which modelled acid aggressiveness. The authors studied the hydraulic conductivity of the slurries as a function of time (18 months) for the exposure to a 0.5 M solution of nitric acid. Changes in the phase composition and hardening slurry surface structures were analysed in terms of their filtration resistance to the action of acid aggressiveness. The comparative base were samples subjected to filtration in tap water (neutral environment). The article reviews a methodology for studying hydraulic conductivity (k10) of hardening slurries. It also presents a study involving the phase composition using the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) method, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and showing an image of the hardening slurry surface structure. The findings of other researchers that the application of fluidized-bed fly-ash additives positively impacted improving the resistance of the cement matrix to acid aggressiveness were confirmed. The hydrated colloidal compounds, identified within the subsurface zone of the slurry, which has been in contact with an acidic environment, provide extra sealing of the material structure, thus significantly limiting the access of aggressive substance to the interior of the slurry.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Falaciński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Kledyński
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, Nowowiejska 20, 00-652 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, Nowowiejska 20, 00-652 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Prediction of soft soil sub-grades settlement has been a big challenge for geotechnical engineers that are responsible for the design of roadbed embankment. The characteristics of low strength, poor permeability, high water contents, and high compressibility are dominant in soft soils, which result in a huge settlement in the case of long-term loading. The settlement prediction in soft soil subgrades of Jiehui Expressway A1, Guangdong, China, is the focus of this study. For this purpose, the necessary data of settlement is collected throughout the project execution. The numerical analysis is conducted by using the Richards model based on Linear Least Squares Iteration (LLS-I) method to calculate and predict the expected settlement. The traditional settlement prediction methods, including the hyperbolic method, exponential curve method, and pearl curve method, are applied on field settlement data of soft soil subgrades of Jiehui Expressway A1. The results show that the Richards model based on Linear Least Squares Iteration (LLS-I) method has high precision, and it has proven to be a better option for settlement prediction of soft soil sub-grades. The model analysis indicates that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) can be minimized as compared to other soft soil sub-grades settlement prediction methods. Hence, Richards's model-based LLS-I method has a capability for simulation and settlement prediction of soft soil subgrades.
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad Nadeem
1
Muhammad Akbar
2
Pan Huali
3
Li Xiaoqing
1
Ou Guoqiang
3
Azka Amin
4

  1. Graduate Student School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, HUST, Wuhan, China
  2. PhD, Research Scholar, Department of Geotechnical Engineering Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, China
  3. Prof, PhD., Eng., Department of Geotechnical Engineering Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, China
  4. Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration Iqra University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan
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Abstract

Incorporation of air-entraining agent has improved recycled concrete freeze-proof durability. However, it is very lacking to study the role of the entraining agent. In this paper, the influence of an air-entraining agent on freeze-proof durability for the ordinary C30 recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) concrete and air-entrained C30 RCA concrete was investigated with the laboratory comparative tests. The mass loss, the dynamic modulus of elasticity, ultrasonic wave velocity and cubic compressive strength were measured during freeze-thaw cycles. The test result showed the concrete’s performance was similar to the ordinary concrete and was better than that of other recycled concretes when the content of RCA was 50% and 0.03% of air-entraining agent was added for C30 RCA concrete. Meanwhile, the addition of air-entraining agent has an improved effect on the performance of recycled concrete, but the effect was limited.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xianghui Deng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yiyuan Liu
2
ORCID: ORCID
Rui Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., School of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, 710021, China
  2. Ms., School of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, 710021, China
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Abstract

Soil stabilization techniques are widely used for road construction to improve the properties of the subgrade materials. Using new additives and stabilizers to improve soil properties can reduce the costs of construction and reduce the possible negative effects of these materials on the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a liquid based nano-material called EarthZyme (EZ) and cement kiln dust (CKD) as admixtures to improve the soil properties. A mixture of two soils was used in this study which were prepared from mixing sand soil and fine-grained soil. Compaction tests were performed on the soil that was stabilized with the CKD to determine the density-water content relationships. Unconfined compression tests were also conducted on specimens without treatment, specimen treated with the CKD only, and specimens treated with the CKD and the EZ after curing period for seven days. The obtained results indicated that adding the CKD to the soil decreased the values of the unconfined compression strength (UCS) from 5 to 15 percent. However, adding the CKD reduced the maximum dry density (MDD) from 10 to 12 %. As discussed herein, soil stabilization with the EZ had insignificant effects on the results obtained from the unconfined compression test.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmed Hazim Abdulkareem
1
ORCID: ORCID
Saadoon O. Eyada
2
ORCID: ORCID
Nabeel S. Mahmood
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD, Civil Engineering Department, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
  2. MSCE, Civil Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Turkey
  3. PhD, The Department of Dams and Water Resources, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq
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Abstract

A theoretical formula for large-diameter rock-socket depth is developed to support pail embedding in a large bridge pile foundation project. There is a horizontal additional stress concentration at the place where the soil around the rock-socketed pile meets the soil layer under the horizontal load. When the rock-socketed tip stress and bending moment of the pile are relatively small, the pile shows favourable embedment effect and the pile foundation can be considered safe. The function curve of soil resistance around the pile under the action of horizontal force was obtained by finite element analysis. The force characteristics reveal the depth of the largediameter rock-socketed pile under the horizontal load. As the rock-socketed pile rotates under the action of horizontal force, the rock mass resistance around the pile changes according to the cosine. The distribution of pileside soil resistance is proportional to the displacement and distributed according to the sine. A comprehensive correction coefficient of pile shaft resistance beta is introduced to deduce the theoretical formula of the depth r h of the large-diameter rock-socketed pile embedded in the bedrock. It is verified through both experiments and numerical analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanfeng F. Li
ORCID: ORCID
Jihe Zhao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ying Xiong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Qinghe Wang
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
  2. Prof., PhD., School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
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Abstract

This paper discusses the approaches of Polish construction managers in terms of their preferences for the use of the two most popular project management (PM) standards and methodologies, namely PMBoK and PRINCE2. Our empirical survey was carried out in a group of managers and construction experts and involved 192 Polish SME companies from the Polish construction sector. The answers to the questionnaire were carefully analysed and interpreted with the use of the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Method. The results show what can affect the choice of management methodology, with a particular focus on such latent variables as PM flexibility, rigidity, knowledge and control. Our study provides empirical evidence which contributes to more effective management of investment projects undertaken by construction companies. The most important conclusions from our study are that PMBoK is more likely tied to flexibility and knowledge and PRINCE2 to rigidity and control. However, it does not necessarily mean that PMBoK has an advantage over PRINCE2. Simply put, the choice of the right methodology may depend on a number of other additional factors, such as: project size, its specific environmental conditions, size of a company implementing specific project, etc. Therefore, under certain conditions (e.g. for larger and more complex projects, etc.) it may be advisable to rely on the PRINCE2 methodology.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Sobieraj
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dominik Metelski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Nowak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DSc., PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. DSc., PhD., University of Granada, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, Campus Universitario de La Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Abstract

Two-way curved arch bridges inherit the fine tradition of masonry structures, making full use of the advantages of prefabricated assembly, it adapts to the situation of no support construction and no large lifting machine and tools, and has the characteristics of convenient construction method and saving material consumption. In appearance, the two-way curved arch bridge has strong national cultural characteristics. The prefabricated components of the two-way curved arch bridge are fragmentary, complicated in bearing and poor in integrity. Most of the two-way curved arch bridges in service have been built for a long time and lack of maintenance and management. Increasing the cross-section reinforcement method is one of the two-way curved arch reinforcement methods. It has a significant effect, convenient construction, good rigidity and stability characteristics after the reinforcement. Through theoretical analysis, combined with a static load test results of the assessment of the bridge reinforcement effect. Through load test, it is found that the deflection of the arch rib after reinforcement is reduced by 9%~19% and the strain of the arch rib is reduced by 12%~22%. Through finite element calculation, the crack width of the reinforced arch rib decreases by 8.3%~14.2%. The results show that the stress and deflection are greatly improved by the method of increasing section.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kexin X. Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tianyu Y. Qi
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xingwei W. Xue
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yanfeng F. Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhimin M. Zhu
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Eng., Shenyang Jianzhu University, School of Traffic Engineering, No. 25 Hunnan Zhong Road, Hunnan District, 110168 Shenyang, China
  2. Master Degree Candidate, Shenyang Jianzhu University, School of Traffic Engineering, No. 25 Hunnan Zhong Road, Hunnan District, 110168 Shenyang, China
  3. Master, Liaoning Urban Construction Design Institute Co. LTD, Shenyang, No.77-1 Jinfeng Street, Shenyang, China
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Abstract

Concrete-filled steel tube arch bridge is filled with concrete inside the steel tube. The radial constraint of the steel tube limits the expansion of the compression concrete, which makes the concrete in the three-way compression state, thus significantly improving the compressive strength of the concrete. At the same time, it can simplify the construction process and shorten the construction period. Since the rapid development of concretefilled steel tubular tied arch bridge in the 1990s, a large number of such Bridges have suffered from the defects of steel concrete, loose tie rod, and hanger rod rust, etc. Therefore, the reinforcement technology for various diseases has been studied, among which the reinforcement technology for hanger rod replacement is the most complicated and more difficult. As more and more bridges of this type enter the period of reinforcement, it ismore and more urgent to study the reinforcement technology of suspenders. Taking a bridge that has been in service for 23 years as an example, this paper discusses the construction method and construction monitoring of replacing the suspender, so as to guide the construction monitoring of the bridge. Finally, the construction monitoring results of the bridge are given, which can provide reference for the replacement of the suspender of this type of bridge.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kexin X. Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tianyu Y. Qi
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xingwei W. Xue
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yanfeng F. Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhimin M. Zhu
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. PhD., Eng., Shenyang Jianzhu University, School of Traffic Engineering, No. 25 Hunnan Zhong Road, Hunnan District, 110168 Shenyang, China
  2. Master Degree Candidate, Shenyang Jianzhu University, School of Traffic Engineering, No. 25 Hunnan Zhong Road, Hunnan District, 110168 Shenyang, China
  3. Master, Liaoning Urban Construction Design Institute Co. LTD, Shenyang, No.77-1 Jinfeng Street, Shenyang, China
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Abstract

The article presents the issue of container handling processes at a rail-road intermodal terminal. In the article, we have focused on the problem of a terminal layout design from the point of view of parking lots for external trucks. The main purpose of this article is the assessment of the necessary parking lots for the trucks considering daily turnover of containers and the trucks appointment time windows. We analyze how the length of the truck’s appointment time windows as well as the difficulties in containers loading operations and a number of handling equipment influence the necessary parking lots for trucks in the intermodal terminal. The trucks planned for loading of import containers may arrive at the terminal before the loading moment that is specified in crane operations schedule. The container handling time is given by a probability distribution. The equations defining the most important elements of the considered problem were presented in the general form. The special case of this model has been developed in the FlexSim simulation software. Based on the simulation research and calculations we pointed out that right truck’s appointment time windows can significantly reduce necessary parking lots at the yard. The literature analysis presented in the article indicates that most of the research in the field of intermodal terminal is focused on operations in container ports. There is lack of literature considering rail-road terminal layout planning in terms of the necessary parking lots and truck’s appointment time windows.
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Authors and Affiliations

Emilian Szczepański
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marianna Jacyna
2
ORCID: ORCID
Roland Jachimowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rostislav Vašek
3
Karol Nehring
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Assc. Prof. PhD, Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Prof. PhD, Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
  3. ID International, Czech Republic, Nádražní 184,702 00 Ostrava
  4. MSc, Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The shear lag effect of the steel box girder section in a self-anchored suspension bridge was investigated in this study. Finite element analysis software Midas Civil was used to discretize the girder under analysis into space plate elements and establish a plate element model. The law of shear lag in the longitudinal direction of the girder in the construction and completion stages was determined accordingly. The shear lag coefficient appears to change suddenly near the side support, middle support, side cable anchorage area, and near the bridge tower support of the steel box girder under the imposed load. The most severe shear lag effect is located near the side support and near the side cable anchorage area. Steel box girder sections are simulated before and after system conversion to analyze the shear lag coefficient in the bridge construction stage. The results show that the shear lag coefficient markedly differs before versus after system conversion due to the different stress mechanisms. The finite element analysis results were validated by comparison with the results of an analysis via analogous rod method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanfeng Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ying He
2
Longsheng Bao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Baoyun Sun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Qinghe Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Prof., PhD., School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
  2. DSc., School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
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Abstract

Based on Projection Pursuit Regression Theory (PPRT), a projection pursuit regression model has been established for forecasting the peak value of blasting vibration velocity. The model is then used to predict the peak value of blasting vibration velocity in a tunnel excavation blasting in Beijing. In order to train and test the model, 15 sets of measured samples from the tunnel project are used as the input data. It is found that predicting results by projection pursuit regression model on the basis of the input data is much more reasonable than that predicted by the traditional Sodaovsk algorithm and modified Sodaovsk formula. The results show that the average predicting error of the projection pursuit regression model is 6.36%, which is closer to the measured values. Thus, the projection pursuit prediction model is a practical and reasonable tool for forecasting the peak value of blasting vibration velocity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jianjun Shi
1
Huaming An
2
ORCID: ORCID
Xin Wei
3

  1. Associate Professor PhD., Eng., Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Underground Space Engineering, School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China
  2. Lecturer, PhD., Eng., Kunming University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Public Security and Emergency Management, 650093, Kunming, China
  3. Master Studnet., Eng., University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Civil and Resource Engineering, 650093, 100083, Beijing, China
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Abstract

The impact of TBM EPB tunnelling was assessed with respect to the observed values of settlements as the results of extensive monitoring system of the subsoil and ground surface. The aim of the analysis using empirical methods was to determine the real scale of impact and to determine the formula for the asymmetric subsidence trough observed during the passage of two TBMs in quaternary cohesive soils. Based on field measurements, authors propose the polynomial formulation for the depth and shape of the asymmetric subsidence trough prediction over twin tube TBM tunnel.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Kuszyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Siemińska-Lewandowska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ph.D., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Prof., DSc., PhD., Eng., Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland

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4. Ensuring scientific accuracy and complying with the principle of authorship; making sure that individual authors who contribute to the publication accept its form after the scientific editing
5. Providing a fair and appropriate peer review process.
6. Withdrawing manuscripts from publication, if any information about its unreliability appeared, also as a result of unintentional errors, features of plagiarism or violation of the rules of publishing ethics were identified.
7. Requiring all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.
8. Maintaining the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
9. Not disclosing any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewer Responsibilities
1. Cooperating with the scientific editor and / or editorial office and the authors in the field of improving the reviewed material;
2. Being objective and expressing the views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
3. Assessing of the entrusted works in a careful and objective manner, if possible with an assessment of their scientific reliability and with appropriate justification of the comments submitted;
4. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
5. calling to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge
6. Maintaining the principle of fair play, excluding personal criticism of the author (s)
7. Maintaining confidentiality, which is not showing or discussing with others except those authorized by the editor. Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents.
8. Performing a review within the set time limit or accepting another solution jointly with ACE in the event of failure to meet this deadline.
9. Notifying the editor if the invited reviewer feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible.
10. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
11. Not considering evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities
1. Results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
2. The authors should follow the principle of originality, which is submitting only their own original works, and in the case of using the works of other authors, marking them in accordance with the rules of quotation, or obtaining consent for the publication of previously published materials from their owners or administrators;
3. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
4. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study and phenomena such as ghostwriting or guest authorship in the event of their detection must be actively counteracted.
5. All authors should report in a Reliable manner the sources they used to create their own study and their inclusion in the attachment bibliography;
6. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.
7. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
8. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
9. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Peer-review Procedure

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
-Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of five outcomes: accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by the reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.
-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
-On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.
-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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