Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 5-17
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0001

Słowa kluczowe:
transformer
winding
frequency response analysis (FRA)
lumped parameters method
transmission line method

One of important methods used for diagnostics of a transformer’s active part is Frequency Response Analysis (FRA). It allows to determine the mechanical condition of windings, their displacements, deformations and electric faults, as well as some problems with internal leads and connections, core and bushings. Still pending problem is interpretation of measurements results. One of approaches is application of computer modeling to simulate various failure modes and connected with them changes in FRA response. The paper presents two types of models, one based on lumped parameters with RLC elements, and one based on distributed parameters with TLM method. Both methods give similar results, comparable to real measurements of simulated coil.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 19-27
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0002

Słowa kluczowe:
positive
continuous-time
minimum energy control
bounded inputs
procedure

The minimum energy control problem for the positive continuous-time linear systems with bounded inputs is formulated and solved. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 29-46
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0003

Słowa kluczowe:
electromagnetic fields
waves permanent magnet machines
air gap magnetic flux
spectral analysis
finite element method

The classic relationships concerning the harmonic content in the air gap field of three-phase machines are presented in form of series of rotating waves. The same approach is applied to modeling of permanent magnet motors with fractional phase windings. All main reasons of non-sinusoidal shape of flux density distribution, namely, magnets’ shape and their placement, slotting, magnetic saturation and eccentricity are also related to their counterparts in modal-frequency spectrum. The Fourier 2D spectrum of time-stepping finite element solution is confronted with results of measurements, with special attention paid to accuracy of both methods.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 47-61
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0004

Słowa kluczowe:
loss and heat
end region
4-poles nuclear power turbine generator
electromagnetic field
temperature field

To study the principle of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator, 3D transient electromagnetic field and 3D steady temperature field finite element (FE) models of the end region are established respectively. Considering the factors such as rotor motion, core non-linearity and time-varying of electromagnetic field, the anisotropic heat conductivity and different heat dissipation conditions of stator end region, a 50 Hz, 1150 MW, 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator is investigated. The loss and heat at the generator end region are calculated respectively at no-load and rated-load, and the calculation results are compared with the test data. The result shows that the calculation model is accurate and the generator design is suitable. The method is valuable for the research of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator and the improvement of the generator’s operation stability. The method has been applied successfully for the design of the larger nuclear power turbine generators.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 63-79
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0005

Słowa kluczowe:
LCL filter
LLCL-filter
efficiency power loss
modulation
single-phase grid-tied inverter

An LLCL-filter is becoming more attractive than an LCL-filter as the interface between the grid-tied inverter and the grid due to possibility of reducing the copper and the magnetic materials. The efficiency of the LLCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverter also excites interests for many applications. The operation of the switches of the VSI is various with different modulation methods, which lead to different efficiencies for such a single-phase grid-tied inverter system, and therefore important research has been carried out on the effect of the choice of PWM schemes. Then power losses and efficiencies of the LLCL-filter and the LCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverters are analyzed and compared under the discontinuous unipolar, the dual-buck and the bipolar modulations. Results show that the efficiency of LLCL-filter based inverter system is higher than the LCL- filter based independent on the modulation method adopted. Experiments on a 2 kW prototype are in good agreement with results of the theoretical analysis.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 81-92
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0006

Słowa kluczowe:
passive filter
compensation of reactive power
harmonics

Single-branch filters are still popular and are commonly used for power quality improvement purposes. Analysis of a single-branch filter is a relatively simple task. Although individual filters tuned to specific harmonics can be easily designed, after connecting them into a group it turns out that the capacitance and inductance mutually influence each other, distorting the resulting frequency characteristics. This article presents a matrix method for design a group of single-branch filters, so that the resultant frequency characteristic satisfies the design requirements including the requirements for location of the frequency characteristic maxima. Designer indicates the frequencies of the parallel resonances.

7
An improved space vector modulation strategy for common-mode voltage reduction in matrix rectifier

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 93-106
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0007

Słowa kluczowe:
matrix converter
space vector modulation
common-mode voltage

The matrix rectifier modulated by the classical space vector modulation (SVM) strategy generates common-mode voltage (CMV). The high magnitude and high du/dt of the CMV causes serious problems such as motor damage, electromagnetic noise and many others. In this paper, an improved SVM strategy is proposed by replacing the zero vectors with suitable couple of active ones that substantially eliminate the CMV. Theoretical analysis proves that the proposed strategy can reduce the amplitude of the CMV to half of the original value. In addition, the quality of the input and output waveforms is not affected by extra active vectors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy are shown.

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 107-114
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0008

Słowa kluczowe:
field analysis
scaling in electrodynamics
eddy current losses

The results of the eddy currents losses calculations with using electrodynamics scaling were presented in this paper. Scaling rules were used for obtain the values of the eddy currents losses. For the calculations Finite Element Method was used. Numerical calculations were verified by measurements and a good agreement was obtained.

9
Multiobjective FEM based optimization of BLDC motor using Matlab and Maxwell scripting capabilities

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 115-124
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0009

Słowa kluczowe:
permanent magnets excited electrical machines
multiobjective optimization
Pareto Front

The paper presents a methodology for the optimization of a Brushless Direct Current motor (BLDC). In particular it is focused on multiobjective optimization using a genetic algorithm (GA) developed in Matlab/Optimization Toolbox coupled with Maxwell from ANSYS. Optimization process was divided into two steps. The aim of the first one was to maximize the RMS torque value and to minimize the mass. The second part of the optimization process was to minimize the cogging torque by selecting proper magnet angle. The paper presents the methodology and capabilities of scripting methods rather than specific optimization results for the applied geometry.

10
The electromagnetic calculations of complex motion common magnetic circuit electromagnetic converter

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March
| 125-133
| DOI: 10.2478/aee-2014-0010

Słowa kluczowe:
electrical machines
common magnetic circuit
torque relative error

This document contains results of research on complex motion common magnetic circuit electromagnetic converter characteristic that allows making independent axial and rotary shaft motion. The converter in addition to linear-rotary mechanism consists of two drive rotors and one common magnetic circuit excitator. Such a solution allows to reduce volume of the machine and makes it easier to use. The paper cites design intent and possible structure of the device. Phenomenon of common magnetic circuit adverse effect on correct operation of device is discussed. The concept of using relative error as a way to evaluate the influence of that phenomenon in the torques is discussed. Waveforms of determined relative errors for all possible cases is presented. Furthermore the concept of average relative error is defined and its use as a quantitative method of assessing the degree of common circuit impact is indicated. Definition of relative error ripple factor is given, and its usage is shown. Winding inductance calculation based on free FEM application is shown and its influence on control strategy and power system.

**ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE)** (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., *Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines*, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., *Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor*, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., *Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor*, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

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[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., *Title of patent*, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

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[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

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[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., *Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,*in IEE*E* Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

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Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)