Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

Content

Archives of Environmental Protection | 2009 | vol.35 | No 4 |

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Abstract

The emission of dust from power and industrial sources introduces a lot of contaminants into the air, including compounds of trace clements contained in fuels and raw materials. They arc contained in rcspirablc dust particles, creating hazard to human health. The results of investigations into the occurrence of selected trace clements in PM1, PM25 and PM10 fractions of dust emitted from coal-fired boilers equipped with air protection devices such as cyclone, clectrofiltcr, wet and dry-scrubbing FGD plant have been presented. Dust emitted from a coke battery (battery heating) and rotary kiln for cement manufacture was also subjected to research. The research material was taken by means of a cascade impactor, enabling a fraction or different grain size dust to be separated from a stream of dust collected in an elcctrofiltcr. The ICP-AES method (of atomic emission spectrometry (AES) with plasma excitation) was used to determine the trace clements alter prior mineralization of samples by microwave method. The results of measurements and analyses were presented by determining the ranges of trace elements occurrence in flue dust and emission factors in PM,s It was found out that big utility boilers and rotary kilns in the cement industry which are equipped with air protection devices meeting BAT requirements do not contaminate the air with dust and dust-related trace elements in the amounts that could create hazard. Excessive emission of dust, including a resp i rabie fraction is still observed in the case of municipal heating plants equipped solely with mechanical dust separators (cyclones). Coke battery heating docs not pose danger due to small range of influence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Konieczyński
Katarzyna Stec
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Abstract

Deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tracts depends on their size distribution. Investigation of such distribution has therefore great meaning lor appropriate assessment o frisk caused by hazardous pollutants that appear in environment both as a result of human activities like industry, emission from motor vehicles. municipal emission due to house furnaces and natural phenomena. The results or screening measurements or size distribution performed in several places located on highly populated areas in Upper Silesia, Poland arc described in this paper. The applied equipment makes it possible to cover the range from several nanometers up to 20 rim, practically all particles that belong to the rcspirable class. Obtained results prove that a lot of particles having a size of the order or submicrons are produced close lo high density tra Ilic roads. This concentration strongly changed in time.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystian Skubacz
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Abstract

Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) may be formed during combustion of Diesel and gasoline rud and may be produced in gas-phase reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with oxides of nitrogen. These compounds can form a significant fraction olthc mainly direct-acting mutagenie compounds present in extracts of ambient air particles. Using own analytical method of nitro-PAHs determination, concentrations or total PAHs, nitro- and dinitro-PAHs in urban and non-urban area of three cites of Upper Silesia in Poland were measured. The dependence between concentration of PAHs and nitro-pAHs in urban and non-urban area as well as their distribution depending on roadway distance were searched. The study showed a significant influence of road transport on the levels ofnitro-PAHs concentration.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marzena Zaciera
Wojciech Mniszek
Jolanta Kurek
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Abstract

The indoor aerosols that arc. among others, generated by air-conditioning systems arc especially significant in school facilities. The measurements carried out in the new, air-conditioned auditorium have shown that the aerosol concentrations arc strongly dependent on the operation or the air-conditioning system and the presence of students. The aerosol concentration was approximately 5 times higher when the air-conditioning (AC) system was switched on. An increased air movement inside the auditorium and the connected with it rcsusperuion of the particles settled on the indoor surfaces could be responsible for this fact. It could also result from the ineffective operation ofthe AC filters. The presence of students in the auditorium caused an increase of the coarse aerosol particles irrespectively of the AC system operation. The results of aerosol particle monitoring should be taken into consideration while controlling the AC processes in order to ensure the desired indoor air quality in this type or facilities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bernard Połednik
Marzenna Dudzińska
Mariusz Skwarczyński
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Abstract

The paper presents results of aluminium concentration determination in the samples of surface water and bottom sediments of the Mala Wełna River (West Poland). In the surface water the concentration of aluminium varies in the range from 4.14 to 25.9 ug/dm'. With use of the Mineql+ program the concentration of the aluminium sulphate complexes in the water samples studied has been determined in a model way. In the bottom sediments samples of the river aluminium has been determined in the granulometrie fractions of the grain sizes> 2.0; 2.0-1.0; 1.0-0.5; 0.5-0.25; 0.25-0.1; 0.1-0.063; < 0.063 mm, using the sequential extraction scheme proposed by Tessier el al. The lowest concentration of aluminium has been found in the granulometrie fraction 0.5-0.25 mm, while the highest in the fractions 0.1-0.063 and< 0.063 mm. An elevated concentration of aluminium has been also noted in the fraction> 2.0 mm. Taking into regard the chemical fractions the lowest concentration of aluminium has been found in the exchange fraction and the fraction bounded to carbonates (fractions I and li), whereas the highest concentration of aluminium has been determined in the lithogenic fraction (fraction V). The methods of sample preparation for analysis of aluminium in bottom sediments were compared. Il was observed that higher concentration of aluminium was present in grounded samples without its influence on grain size fractions. The concentration of aluminium in surface water samples has been determined by the GF-AAS, while in bottom sediments by F-AAS.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Frankowski
Anetta Zioła-Frankowska
Jerzy Siepak
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Abstract

The paper presents the results on the studies on determination of concentrations or four phenoxyacetic herbicides, four triazine herbicides. seven insecticides and other pollutants in the Supraśl catchment. The samples were collected over a period or two years. from May 2003 to April 2005. This work will be a precious source or information about the occurrence of agropollutants in the surface water. The residues of herbicides active ingredients were determined using chromatography methods - GC with ECD and NP detection. The maximum residues or herbicide in surface water were detected in spring and autumn - up to 120 ug/dm: for phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP). The most important fact noted during the research is that in surface water used for drinking significant amounts of crop protection substances were detected, which, in the light of the new law concerning the quality of drinking water. must undoubtedly be removed in the treatment processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Ignatowicz
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Abstract

Physicochemical parameters of water and phytoplankton composition were studied in the dirnictic, submountain Dobczyce Reservoir (southern Poland) affected by summer storrnflow, which took place in September 2007. During summer (except September) temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and carbonates showed vertical differentiation. Stormwater flow through the system had a destabilizing effect on summer stratification. It diluted the concentrations of salts (sulphate and chloride) and slightly increased the concentration of nutrients in the reservoir. In phytoplankton some changes in the dominant species among the Cyanobacteria group were noted.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Szarek-Gwiazda
Grażyna Mazurkiewicz-Boroń
Elżbieta Wilk-Woźniak
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Abstract

Badania nad poziomym rozmieszczeniem makrozoobentosu piaszczystego dna w okolicach Jastarni i Juraty prowadzone były jednorazowo latem 2004 roku. Wyznaczono 15 stanowisk w okolicach Juraty dzieląc stanowiska na cztery promienie oddalone od siebie o 100 m oraz 4 stanowiska w pobliżu portu w Jastarni. Bezkręgowce denne na tym obszarze reprezentowane były przez 18 gatunków i 3 grupy ponadgatunkowe, które w pobliżu Juraty osiągały zagęszczenie X = 1840 osobn. · nr' i masę mokrą X = 121,8 g,,,,;m·', a w okolicach Jastarni x = 638 osobn.im? i x = 376,6 g,,,,,,·m·'. Najczęściej spotykanymi gatunkami były Hediste diversicolor, Cerastoderma g!aucum i Hydrobia u/vae. Większą bioróżnorodnością wyznaczoną wskaźnikiem ShannonaWienera charakteryzowały się stanowiska najbardziej oddalone od brzegu w Juracie. Skład gatunkowy oraz struktura jakościowo-ilościowa fauny dennej w tej części Zatoki Puckiej świadczy o niezadowalającym stanie środowiska oraz niskiej wartości tych obszarów jako miejsca żerowania ryb.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystian Obolewski
Anna Jarosiewicz
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Abstract

Most often sewage treatment and sludge disposal are handled as two separate technological parts of treatment plants. Attempts are made to change the practice. Keeping the standards of treated sewage is the primary objective, and sewage sludge is a by-product which has to he get rid of. The environmental consequences of various procedures of sludge disposal are rarely considered. On the other hand, incorporation of sludge handling procedures in the processes of sewage treatment can result in cost savings and be environmentally friendly. In the presented paper, suggestions arc given on possibilities of closer integration of sewage and sludge treatment, based on experiments. Research aimed at sewage sludge quantity minimization and quality upgrading, recovery of phosphorous and efficient nitrogen removal. Appearing occasionally scum floating over biological sewage treatment units was shown to be considered as an integrated part or sewage treatment and sludge handling at EBNRP's.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Suschka
Eligiusz Kowalski
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of research into the effect of microwave radiation on waste treatment in a reactor with a biolilrn. 2.45 GHz microwave radiation was supplied to the reactors placed inside a microwave chamber. The radiation was generated by magnetron and the amount or radiation was controlled by varying the times of alternating phases ofrudiation and treatment. The study was conducted in three arrangements of alternating phases: 7 s radiation and 10 treatment;7 s radiation and 5 min treatment: 25 s radiation and 10 min treatment. The results obtained in the study show that microwave radiation affects the process ofbiologieal waste treatment not only through heating but also through its atherrnul properties. An increase in the effectivencss of the treatment was particularly visible in the microwave action in nitrogen removal.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Zieliński
Mirosław Krzemieniewski
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Abstract

The profile differences of zinc, copper, and nickel contents in forest podzolic soils on South-Podlasie Lowland wen: studied. Their considerable differentiation was found. Contents and differentiation of analyzed heavy metals in studied soil horizons were determined by: parents rock and soil-forming processes (mainly podzolization) characteristic for those soils.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Kalembasa
Marcin Becher
Krzysztof Pakuła

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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