Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

Content

Archives of Environmental Protection | 2008 | vol. 34 | No 3 |

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Abstract

The literature on membrane distillation and forward osmosis for treating natural and recovered wastewaters is reviewed. There is renewed interest in these membrane technologies as alternatives to pressure driven processes such as reverse osmosis, which are expensive in both capital and energy, and generally require pre-treatment of the feed water. Membrane distillation with hydrophobic microfiltration membranes can make use of low-grade heat energy, and give higher yields of product water from concentrated feed waters. Forward osmosis uses hydrophilic membranes akin to reveres osmosis, and needs a draw solution that is appropriate in the product water. or must be recovered and reused in large-scale operation. Although they show great promise as simple low energy systems, no large-scale installation of either process exists as yet. Membrane distillation has considerable potential for desalination to produce drinking water, whereas FO is currently confined to small-scale systems, especially as a source of energy drinks in emergency situations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Brian Bolto
Manh Hoang
Thuy Tran
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Abstract

In the degraded red soil of subtropical China, restoration activities during the last century have mainly relied on extensive plantations of Pinus massonian. We analyze the changes in the soil macroarthropods in P. massonian plantations and the possible relationships between these changes and soil chemical parameters. The study revealed significant differences in the abundance of soil macroarthropods between the P. massonian plantations and the natural regenerated mesophilous herbosa (NJ). The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroarthropods seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroarthropods with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by P massonian. The total abundance, the abundance of Hymenoptera and Termite were less in the P. massonian plantations when compared to the natural regenerated mesophilous herbosa (N 1 ). This survey showed that P.massonian could adversely affect the decomposer community which could lower the nutrient cycling rate, thus Pimassonian may not be an ideal plantation for restoration of eroded Ultisol, Subtropical China.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chengcheng Ding
Feng Hu
Jing Zhou
Zhihong Cao
Huixin Li
Zhengkai Dai
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Abstract

In some areas of the United States (US), asthma prevalence has reached historically unprecedented highs. Three peer-reviewed studies in New York City found prevalence rates among children from 25% to 39%. That is not true in all places. For example, prevalence in Miami, Florida, was estimated to be only 6-10%. A recent study in major cities in Georgia found only 8.5%. One study in California found asthma prevalence was unrelated to local concentrations of criterion pollutants. In the US, all criterion pollutants, including PM2.5, show a downward trend over the last two decades. These facts argue against any significant influence of criterion pollutants in this crisis.These facts suggest that an unrecognized ambient pollutant may be the cause. One important study in southern California in mid-summer measured pulmonary function in children as it was related to outdoor ozone pollution. They found a negative association; higher levels of ozone were associated with improved respiratory function. We call this a "Paradoxical Ozone Association" (POA). Further evidence for a POA appears in seven other studies in Los Angeles, London, Scotland, and southeastern Canada.One plausible explanation for these observations would be the production of methyl nitrite (MN) as an exhaust product of MTB E in gasoline. Unlike ozone, MN is rapidly destroyed by sunlight. All of the POA studies were done in regions with significant methyl ether in gasoline. This explanation is strengthened by the observation that a POA has not been seen in regions without ether in gasoline.A previous A WMA paper proposed a plausible chemical model predicting that MTBE in gasoline will create MN in the exhaust. MN is highly toxic and closely related alkyl nitrites are known to induce respiratory sensitivity in humans. Funding to measure MN has not been available
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Authors and Affiliations

Peter M. Joseph
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Abstract

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are present in the air either adsorbed on particulate matter or as vapor (minor part). They are most known carcinogens and mutagens. In this study dust samples from Lublin were being collected for 12 months and analyzed for the PCDD/Fs content. For the analysis of these samples classical extraction with Soxhlet apparatus, double step clean-up based on SEC and charge-transfer interactions chromatography, and finally analysis with GC-MS were applied. Results of the determinations were compared with results obtained by other authors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aneta Duda
Jacek Czerwiński
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Abstract

This work presents results of the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from granules composed of fly ashes, which are the product of hard and coal combustion and sewage sludge. 3 types of granulates by a weight ratio of ash to sludge 3:7 and 1: 1 were used. The research of PAH leaching was conducted within a simulated period of 24 months, with the examination of PAH washing out every three months. The highest amounts of PAH (297 - 330 μg/kg dw.) were obtained_from granulates containing 7 parts by weights of sewage sludge (3 times higher in comparison with the granulate containing ash and sludge in ratio of I: 1 ). The maximum PAH release from all the examined granulates took place in the 9th month of the research. Benzo(k)fluoranthene revealed the highest fraction (67.4-76.0%) of all examined compounds.
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Authors and Affiliations

Czesława Rosik-Dulewska
Urszula Karwaczyńska
Tomasz Ciesielczuk
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to show the basic principles of the anaerobic digestion process. All the stages of degradation, such as hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis are characterized. Biodegradable organic matter consists of three main types of substances: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids; the metabolic pathways of their decomposition are described. The last part of the paper presents the co-digestion process, its benefits and technological parameters required to make that process attractive from an economical and environmental point of view.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Montusiewicz
Magdalena Lebiocka
Małgorzata Pawłowska
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Abstract

Landfilling is the main method of waste disposal in Poland as well as in most countries all over the world. Leachate originating during waste deposition may be a source of ground water pollution. The aim of the paper was to characterize and compare the composition of leachate originating from three landfills in Lublin Province (Poland) and differing in their methods of waste pre-treatment. Ozonation was used in the initial trials to treat landfill leachate. Experiments were carried out to determine whether ozonation using a single dose of 1.8 gO,lm3 has the same effect on the efficiency of organic removal from leachates characterized by different ages and degrees of solid waste pretreatment. From analyses (BOD5, COD, N-NH,, heavy metals) it was concluded, that excluding some fractions (glass, paper, plastics, aluminum, fine organic fraction) from the waste mass affects the leachate quality. The studied oxidizing method was found to influence the BOD5 and COD levels
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Lebiocka
Agnieszka Montusiewicz
Małgorzata Pawłowska
Janusz Ozonek
Ewa Szkutnik
Marcin Rosłan
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Abstract

The accumulation and removal of the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) by fibrous ion exchangers at different stages of a typical biological wastewater treatment system, have been studied. In particular, the chelating ion exchanger FIBAN X- I allows rapid and efficient sorption of the heavy metals from primary treated effluents. The degree of removal of Cu ion wa, about 17%; for both Cd and Pb the removal efficiency wa, >40%. Applied in batch process mode FIBAN X-1 should diminish the content of heavy metals in sewage and treated effluent.
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Authors and Affiliations

Henryk Wasąg
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Abstract

The work is a continuation of previous studies on the effect of thiuram on the mobility of heavy metals in soils. The introductory part of the work involved the analysis of properties of the soils used for the examination i.e.: the content of organic matter, acidity and mechanical properties. The content of lead, copper, manganese and zinc was determined in soils (IM HCI extracts) free from additives and soils sprayed with thiuram after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. The content of total metals was determined in mineralizates (soils without thiuram) obtained by a conventional method according to the ISO standards. The analysis showed that the soils used for the examination were not contaminated with any of the determined elements. The contents of Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn in soils with thiuram were different depending on metals and the time of contact of the soils with thiuram.
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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Jankieiwcz
Dorota Adamczyk
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine contents of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in soils of 5 poviats in Łódzkie Voivodeship (Poviats: Łódź, Brzeziny, East Łódź, Pabianice and Zgierz). The objects of the investigation were over 500 samples of soils collected from cultivated fields, meadows, fallows and urban areas (lawns and city parks). The concentration of elements in all samples was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry after extraction with I rnol/drrr' HCl solution. The highest contents of heavy metals were detected in the City of Łódź area. The amounts of leachable metals in the samples under study were within the ranges: 0.3 - 48.4 ppm Cu, 1.7 - 162.9 ppm Pb; 0.9- 357.6 ppm Zn; below 2.1 ppm Cd and below 7.6 ppm Ni.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Turek
Jacek Krystek
Wojciech Wolf
J. Kubicki
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of anaerobic digestion and co-digestion under mesophilic conditions in the OxiTop system and in lab-scale fermentors. The goal of the study was to determine the effect of reaction-based oil waste on biogas production in co-fermentation with sewage sludge (mixture of thickened primary and excess sludge). The average water content in sewage sludge was 97 %, with 70 % of total volatile solids concentration (TVS) in total solids. Weight content of oil waste in the mixture of sewage sludge ranged from 15 to 45 % (w/w) and the increase in TVS to 83.7 % was observed. The primary investigations of gas productivity by manometrie method (OxiTop) showed that biogas production increased with increasing content of oil waste in the mixture with sewage sludge. The rate constant of the first-order kinetics for biogas production was determined. To determine the yield parameters of cofermentation, the experiment was performed in four continuously stirred anaerobic reactors with a working volume of IO drrr'. Organic loading rate (OLR) changed from 0.9 to 3.1 kg TVS/m3•d. High correlation between biogas flow rate and OLR was observed. Volumetric biogas production rate and the average methane content in the biogas increased from 0.79 to 1.98 m3/m3-d and from 52.3 to 62.3 %, respectively, as OLR increased. The results obtained in lab-scale fermentors are promising and open the possibilities of the implementation of co-fermentation of sewage sludge and oil waste.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Bernat
Andrzej Białowiec
Irena Wojnowska-Baryła
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Abstract

The impact of mechanical pre-treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) on its biogas production potential was examined. Mechanical separation allowed the following size-fractions to be obtained: fine fraction - mineral fraction of municipal solid waste (MFMSW) (cf> < 20 mm), middle fraction - organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (20 mm< cf>< 80 mm), and coarse fraction (cf>> 80 mm). The most suitable fraction for biological treatment was OFMSW, containing about 76 % of high rate biodegradable organic fraction (HRBOF). The rate constant of degradation for organic compounds in OFMSW was 0.23 d·1• It was shown that total gas production (TGP) during 10 years may achieve 550 m3/Mg OFMSW. Mechanical pre-treatment may allow an 45 % decrease of the amount of landfilled MSW resulting in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 70 m3/Mg over 10 years of landfilling (in contrast to MSW landfilling - 213 m3/Mg). The experimental results revealed that gas production potential should be determined on the basis of HRBOF content and measurements of the biogas production.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Białowiec
Katarzyna Bernat
Irena Wojnowska-Baryła
Marek Agopsowicz
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Abstract

The present study aimed at a determination of the formula allowing water content to be calculated for model degraded soil enriched with Biona-312 ion exchange substrate. To this end a mixture of sand and Biona- 312 was prepared which was monitored for water content changes. Moisture was determined both gravimetrically and reflectometrically (TOR method). To improve the reliability of the TOR method individual calibration was made. The specific calibration formula as polynomial of the third degree was found for water content determination in sand supplemented with Biona-312. The results confirmed the high potential of the TOR method in moisture monitoring, especially when individual calibration is done.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariola Chomczyńska
Zbigniew Suchorab
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Abstract

Data sets gathered continuously in air monitoring systems are never entirely complete. The problem of missing data in monitoring measure series often has to be solved by modeling. A new method of air monitoring data modelling was tested in the paper. Regional diurnal concentration courses (RDCCs) were used as the main source of knowledge of predicted time series during specified days. The paper presents a comparison of predicted and measured diurnal concentration patterns of two frequently used parameters in air monitoring (PM10 and NO2). The analysis was based on hourly time series of these air pollutants collected in a 3-year period at nine monitoring stations in the Lodz Region. It was shown that well determined regional diurnal concentration patterns could be useful to missing data modelling at the specified monitoring site. Improvement of modelling accuracy is possible after modification of modelling results by adding local difference vectors (LDVs), describing the specificity of the monitoring station.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Hoffman
Rafał Jasiński
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Abstract

The paper deals with the study upon the possibility to reduce migration of deposited pesticide wastes by using natural and waste sorption agents that would make a screen against plant protection means penetration into the hydrosphere. Sewage sludge from dairy treatment plant "Mlekovita" in Wysokie Mazowieckie as well as the same sludge with sawdust composted under natural conditions in Rudka Forestry Inspectorate was applied as natural sorption agents. Freundlich's and Langmuir's isotherms revealed that raw (no composting) sewage sludge showed better sorption features towards chloroorganic pesticides.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Ignatowicz
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Abstract

The contents of total P and its bioavailable forms. as well as of Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, and OM in the bottom sediments of the Solina-Myczkowce (S-E Poland) cascade of reservoirs, are presented. Notwithstanding a relatively low calcium content, it is the apatite fraction that accounts for the largest share of total phosphorus in the shallower parts of the Solina and Myczkowce Reservoirs. In turn, while contents of iron and aluminium (and manganese in the Solina Reservoir) are high, the fraction containing non-apatite inorganic phosphorus accounts for the smallest portion of the total phosphorus in the bottom sediments of both reservoirs. Bottom sediments of the Solina Reservoir are also characterised by significant correlations between total phosphorus content and aluminium content. Otherwise, significant correlations are reported for only some of the stations at each of the reservoirs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lilianna Bartoszek
Janusz A. Tomaszek
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Abstract

The fertilizing value of rye, potato and molasses decoctions was evaluated in a microplot experiment, in which maize and turnip were used as testing plants. Based on the analysis of chemical composition of decoctions it was found that these decoctions used as fertilizing material were unbalanced with respect to their N, Pand K contents. The potato decoction is characterized by the most favourable N:K ratio from the point of view of the nutritional requirements of plants. The rye decoction contains too little potassium and that from molasses - too much of this element in relation to N content. The use of the molasses decoction in fertilizing is possible after its correction with phosphorus. The rye decoction requires correction with potassium for appropriate use in fertilization. In addition, application of the decoctions studied caused an increase in the organic C and total N contents in soil and improvements in the sorption properties of soil. The molasses decoction caused a decrease in the available forms of P in soil. The decoctions applied in experiments considerably increased yields and nutrient content in plants studied, both in the direct and after- effect.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Rutkowska
Wiesław Szulc
Jan Łabętowicz
Anna Gutowska
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Abstract

Pathways of PCDTs and PCTAs in the environment are discussed. Data on levels of these compounds in various pan of the environment and their possible sources are presented. Finally, the data on biological effects of PCDTs and PCT As based on some preliminary toxicological investigations are given.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Czerwiński
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Abstract

Methane is an atmospheric trace gas, which is estimated to contribute about 20% to global warming. Coal mining used to be regarded as attributing considerably to the anthropogenic emissions of that potent greenhouse gas. Recently discovered methanotrophic abilities of coalbed rocks brought a new argument to the discussion about the environmental impact of the mining industry. In the present work, we determined the methanotrophic activity and maximum capacity (Vmaxl of methane oxidation originating from rocks surrounding seam 385/2 of the "Bogdanka" coal mine. Methane oxidation rates ranged from 0.23lμM CH4 g "day ·1 in the rock from the middle of the seam to 0.619 μM CH4 g "day ·1 in the bottom rock (4.4 m depth). Methanotrophic activity and Ymax increased with the distance to the coal body and with decreasing TOC content. Initial and terminal redox conditions (Eh>320 mV, pH 7.60-8.62) confirmed the oxic character of the methane oxidation process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zofia Stępniewska
Anna Pytlak
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Abstract

This paper discusses the results of a study on the impact of nitrogen stress on the accumulation of various N forms in young pines and in needles of mature pine trees. With the increase in N content in the growth environment (fertilization), a several fold increase in total N in plants was found while N-NH4 increased tens of times as compared to the treatment without fertilization. At a decreased biomass yield by ca. 50 % the proportion of N-NH4 in the total N pool fluctuated from IO to 15 %, or even more. The share of N-NO3 in the total N amount was several fold lower than that of N-NH4. In needles of trees growing under the impact of N deposition, the observed share of N-NH4 in the total N pool was at a level of ca. 3 %. but the total amount of soluble non-protein N compounds constituted ca. 26 %. In needles of trees under low N deposition only trace amounts of mineral N were detected. Thus it can be suggested that the ratio of total N to soluble non-protein N compounds as well as the total N to mineral N ratio may be used as indices of N stress for pine.
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Authors and Affiliations

Apolonia Ostrowska
Grażyna Porębska
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Abstract

The present studies aimed at comparing the effect of the potassium monoionic form (prepared from a model spent ion exchanger) and a conventional potassium fertilizer (KCI) on plant vegetation after addition to depleted soil. To achieve the study aim a pot experiment using orchard grass (Dacrylis glomerata L.) as the test plant was carried out. The vegetation cycle lasted seven weeks. The plants were grown on four series of media: on untreated soil, on soil with added monoionic K form, on soil with added KCI and on soil with Biona-312 substrate added (2% v/v). Biona-312 served as the control fertilizer containing all macro- and microelements. The application of monoionic potassium form positively influenced orchard grass vegetation. The addition of K form into soil increased stem wet and dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry yield by 15, 10, 13 and 12%, respectively. Bearing in mind that the amount of dry plant matter as source material for humus formation is crucial in soil reclamation, the effectiveness of potassium monoionic form was found to be similar to that of the mineral fertilizer - KCI. Biona-312 was the most efficient fertilizer used in the study, resulting in the greatest yield of Dactylis glomerata L.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Zdeb
Mariola Chomczyńska
Vladimir S. Soldatov
Lucjan Pawłowski
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Abstract

In the study we have focused on the distribution of several metals (Cr, As, Pb) and anions (Cr, NO3-) and their partition between pore (interstitial) waters and sediments sampled at three stations at the Dobczyce Reservoir which supplies the drinking water to inhabitants from the city of Kraków and its agglomeration. The results show considerable increase in concentrations of Pb and As in pore water samples, when compared to the bottom waters. Meaningful alternations in concentration were observed in case of pore water samples (Pb, As) and sediments (Cr, Pb, As), coming from three stations and their lateral sections. The possible relations between this phenomenon and the sediment characteristic as well as the Fe and Ca content, has been studied. Some comments on the seasonal variations of anion contents in water and pore water samples, are also provided. It was found that nitrates and sulphates show considerable variations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Macherzyński
Witold Reczyński
J. Sanecki
Jerzy Górecki
Janusz Gołaś
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Abstract

Spent-filter backwash water is usually discharged into sewers or returned to the head of a water treatment plant (WTP) to be re-processed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare two different WTP filter backwash water contents that were obtained by using conventional and air scour backwash methods, and influence the recycling of spent-filter backwash water. For this purpose, the spent-filter backwash water was analyzed at two different Lithuanian WTPs i.e. one using a conventional backwash method and another using an air scour backwash method (Eades, 2001). The impact of recycling spent-filter backwash on the treated water's quality was evaluated by comparing the concentration of the total iron content with suspended solids in the filtered water by following legislation rules. Backwash water in this research contained a significant concentration of total iron and a large amount of suspended solids. In this study it was found that, conventional sedimentation by gravity was sufficient for the removal of suspended solids and iron from the backwash water. Further, the presence of analyzed chemical compounds accumulating into the backwash water after sedimentation had no significant impact on the filtration's effectiveness. Therefore, this research shows that air-scour backwash water can be recycled in the same way as conventional backwash water, but a different sedimentation rate needs to be evaluated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marina Valentukeviciene
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Abstract

The effects of activated sludge sonication on floes surface properties and heavy metal uptake was investigated. Negative surface charge and specific surface area were estimated by correlation with dye adsorption whereas relative hydrophobicity was measured by adhesion to hexadecane. Experimental results show that ultrasound treatment leads to a simultaneous increase of specific surface area and availability of negatives and/or hydrophilic sites. Thus, fixation sites for heavy metal uptake are made free by sonication. Both increase of specific surface area and fixation sites availability leads to an increase of uptake of Cd(II). For Cu(II), organ.ie matter released in soluble phase during the treatment acts as a ligand and limits adsorption on floes surface.
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Authors and Affiliations

Julien Laurent
M. Casellas
Christophe Dagot
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Abstract

Levels and distribution of selected polybrorninated diphenyl ether congeners in dust samples taken from different indoor environments in Lublin, South-Eastern Poland, are reported. The most abundant congeners, found in the majority of sampling sites, were BOE 47, 100 and 28, respectively. The highest levels of examined congeners were observed in dust samples taken from a computer repair facility and labs. BOE 47, 99 and 100, occurring at highest levels and having the greatest contribution confirm that in Polish indoor environments polymer products contain Penta - BOE technical mixture.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amelia Staszowska
Bernard Połednik
Marzenna R. Dudzińska
Jacek Czerwiński
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Abstract

The paper describes the most important factors controlling the process of methanogenesis in the biomethanization technology. It discusses the operational regimes of temperature as well as pH, C/N ratio, the necessity for micronutrients and sensitivity to a number of toxic compounds. Components with an inhibitory effect are characterized as biostatic compounds (ammonia, VFAs, hydrogen sulfide and salinity-inducing substances) and biocidal substances (such as surfactants and pharmaceuticals). The threshold limits of the compounds in question securing the system against disturbances are introduced, as well as the measures counteracting inhibition. Some ways of overcoming the negative impact of environmental factors on the system are presented, including co-fermentation, supplementation of nutrients, removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by different methods and acclimatization of methanogens to inhibitory substances.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Montusiewicz
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Abstract

The present work focuses on problems connected with the location and sampling method for pecton (biofilm) in sewage treatment plants. We also discuss the amount and quantity of pecton necessary to compose a representative sample. Comparisons of other selected contamination indicators in place of pecton sampling, are also presented. Research carried out at the WWTP "Hajdow" demonstrated that everything (starting from grid chambers), coming into contact with sewage surfaces is covered with biofilm This biological formation does not cause any significant changes in sewage quality due to its relatively small surface compared to the sewage flux. As presented in the following analysis, pecton can be used for bioindication of sewage quality. This is possible because the organisms forming these communities use substances contained in flowing sewage as nutritional substrates. In such cases the wastewater purification level in biological sewage treatment plants can, in a way similar to rivers, be determined based on bioindication methods using existing similarities between the prevailing processes and organisms.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Łagód
Henryk Sobczuk
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Abstract

The landfill gas (LFG), produced during decomposition of the organic fraction of waste is a major source of air pollutants. It consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide, but also contains additional gases, such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide, and a large number of trace components. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes and siloxanes belong to this group. This work presents the results of field studies concerning the concentration of over fifty non-methane organic compounds in municipal solid waste landfill gas. The sites examined were located in the Middle East macroregion of Poland. The landfills were different in the respect to size, morphology, and age of stored waste. The results reveal that the highest concentrations of the majority of the examined compounds were observed in gas released from the largest landfill at which the waste was not pre-treated prior to deposition. Concentrations often exceeded those found in the literature data. Deposition of waste after separation of biofraction and recyclable materials significantly decreased concentrations of the majority of NMOCs in the LFG.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Pawłowska
Jacek Czerwiński
Witold Stępniewski
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Abstract

Biomethanization of mixed organic substances is the effect of coexistence of numerous groups of microorganisms. Methanogenic degradation of such substances involves at least three different trophic groups of anaerobes, namely fermentative heterotrophs, proton-reducing syntrophs and methanogenic archaea. The development of molecular techniques allowed to detect some new groups of bacteria and archea, which often stay unculturable. The cultivation of uncultured organisms is of great significance in recognizing the function of these organisms. In the past few years, newly discovered microorganisms have been successfully isolated from anaerobic sludges, and the information regarding their physiology in connection with phylogeny is updated regularly.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Rożej
Agnieszka Montusiewicz
Magdalena Lebiocka

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

Scope
The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
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The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to: aep@ipispan.edu.pl

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Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

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Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, (http://www.krakow.pios.gov.pl/publikacje/2009/ (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
For example:

Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.


Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/legalcode), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.


© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/legalcode), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made


The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at http://www.editorialsystem.com/aep. Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
25 EUR/100 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),
35 EUR/130 zł per page (color).

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
SWIFT: GOSKPLPW

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.
 

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