Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2021 | vo. 21 | No 4 |

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Abstract

The article presents the results of research on the physicochemical and mechanical properties, microstructure, and the tendency to form shrinkage of nodular cast iron depending on the type of inoculant used for secondary inoculation. Six different inoculants containing different active elements in their chemical composition were used for the research. Step castings and Y2 wedges were made on the vertical forming line using an automatic pouring machine. The inoculation in the amount of 0.2% was made using a pneumatic dispenser equipped with a vision system controlling the effectiveness of the inoculation. The results of the thermal analysis were determined and compared, and the potential of each of the inoculants was assessed.
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Bibliography

[1] Fraś, E., Podrzucki, C. (1978). Modified cast iron. Kraków: Skrypt AGH, nr. 675. (in Polish).
[2] ITACAX™ – Final iron control. Retrieved November 10, 2021, from http://www.proservicetech.it/itacax-thermal-analysis-final-iron-quality-control/.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Dwulat
1 2
K. Janerka
2
K. Grzesiak
1

  1. Foundry Lisie Kąty, Lisie Kąty 7, 86-302 Grudziądz, Poland
  2. Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Towarowa 7, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Disposable foundry models constitute an increasingly important role in a unitary large-size foundry. These models have many benefits, but technologies using such materials require an understanding of degradation kinetics at the time of filling. The studies presented in the article determine the size of the polystyrene combustion products used for disposable foundry models. The results were obtained by carrying out the combustion process of the polystyrene model in a special combustion chamber, in different configurations. The pressures generated during thermal degradation vary depending on process parameters such as model density or the use of an additional adhesive binder. The results of laboratory tests may suggest what values of pressure are generated when filling in full-mold and lost foam technologies. The studies provide a prelude to further analysis of materials used for disposable foundry models and quantitative evaluation of their thermal degradation products for computer simulation.
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Bibliography

[1] Pacyniak, T. (2013). Full mold casting. Selected aspects. Lodz: A Series of Monographs, Lodz University of Technology. (in Polish)
[2] Pysz, S., Żółkiewicz, Z., Żuczek, R., Maniowski, Z., Sierant, Z., Młyński, M. (2010). Simulation studies of mould filling conditions with molten metal in evaporative pattern technology. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 10(3), 27-37.
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[4] Kaczorowski, R., Just, P. & Pacyniak, T. (2013), Test bench for analyzing the lost foam process. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 13(1), 57-62.
[5] Buczkowska, K., Just, P., Świniarska, J. & Pacyniak, T. (2015). The effect of the type, the ceramic coating thickness and the pattern set density on the degree of gas porosity in casting. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(2), 7-12.
[6] Żmudzińska, M., Faber, J., Perszewska, K., Żółkiewicz, Z., Maniowski, Z. (2011). Studying the emission of products formed during evaporation of polystyrene patterns in the lost foam process in terms of the work environment. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 50(1), 23-33.
[7] Żółkiewicz, Z., Baliński, A., Żółkiewicz M. (2017). Characteristics of the thermal process of polystyrene model gasification. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 17(3), 201 - 210.
[8] Mocek, J. & Chojecki, A. (2014). Gas atmosphere formed in casting by full mold process. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 59(3), 1045-1049.
[9] Żółkiewicz, Z. & Żółkiewicz, M. (2010). Characteristic properties of materials for evaporative patterns. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(spec. 3), 289-292.
[10] Pielichowski, J., Sobczak, J.J., Żółkiewicz, Z., Hebda, E., Karwiński, A. (2011). The thermal analysis of polystyrene foundry model. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 11(1), 15-21.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Jureczko
1 2
D. Bartocha
1

  1. Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 7 Towarowa Str. 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Joint Doctoral School, Silesian University of Technology, 2A Akademicka Str. 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Production of the defect-free casting of aluminium alloys is the biggest challenge. Porosity is known to be the most important defect. Therefore, many cast parts are subjected to several non-destructive tests in order to check their acceptability. There are several standards, yet, the acceptance limit of porosity size and distribution may change according to the customer design and requirements. In this work, the aim was targeted to evaluate the effect of size, location, and distribution of pores on the tensile properties of cast A356 alloy. ANSYS software was used to perform stress analysis where the pore sizes were changed between 0.05 mm to 3 mm by 0.05 mm increments. Additionally, pore number was changed from 1 to 5 where they were placed at different locations in the test bar. Finally, bifilms were placed inside the pore at different sizes and orientations. The stress generated along the pores was recorded and compared with the fracture stress of the A356 alloy. It was found that as the bifilm size was getting smaller, their effect on tensile properties was lowered. On the other hand, as bifilms were larger, their orientation became the dominant factor in determining the fracture.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Sahin
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Atik
1
F. Tezer
1
S. Temel
1
O. Aydin
1
O. Kesen
1
O. Gursoy
2
D. Dispinar
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
  2. University of Padova, Italy
  3. Foseco, Netherlands
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Abstract

Cast iron destined for spheroidization is usually characterized by a near-eutectic chemical composition, which is a result of the necessity of maintaining its high graphitizing ability. This graphitizing ability depends mainly on the chemical composition but also on the so-called physical-chemical state. This, in turn, depends on the melting process history and the charge structure. It happens quite often, that at very similar chemical compositions cast irons are characterized by different graphitizing abilities. The hereby work concerns searching for the best method of assessing the graphitizing abilities of near-eutectic cast iron. The assessment of the graphitizing ability was performed for cast iron obtained from the metal charge consisting of 100% of special pig iron and for synthetic cast iron obtained from the charge containing 50% of pig iron + 50% of steel. This assessment was carried out by a few methods: wedge tests, thermal analysis, microstructure tests as well as by the new ultrasonic method. The last method is the most sensitive and accurate. On the basis of the distribution of the wave velocity, determined in the rod which one end was cast on the metal plate, it is possible to determine the graphitizing ability of cast iron. The more uniform structure in the rod, in which directional solidification was forced and which had graphite precipitates on the whole length, the higher graphitizing ability of cast iron. The homogeneity of the structure is determined by the indirect ultrasonic method, by measurements of the wave velocity. This new ultrasonic method of assessing the graphitizing ability of cast iron of a high Sc (degree of eutectiveness) and CE (carbon equivalent) content, can be counted among fast technological methods, allowing to assess the cast iron quality during the melting process.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Zych
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Myszka
1
T. Snopkiewicz
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Department of Moulding Materials, Mould Technology and Cast Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Computational Materials Engineering (CME) is a high technological approach used to design and develop new materials including the physical, thermal and mechanical properties by combining materials models at multiple techniques. With the recent advances in technology, the importance of microstructural design in CME environments and the contribution that such an approach can make in the estimation of material properties in simulations are frequently discussed in scientific, academic, and industrial platforms. Determination of the raw material characteristics that can be modeled in a virtual environment at an atomic scale by means of simulation programs plays a big role in combining experimental and virtual worlds and creating digital twins of the production chain and the products. In this study, a new generation, alternative and effective approach that could be used to the development of Al-Si based wheel casting alloys is proposed. This approach is based on the procedure of optimizing the physical and thermodynamic alloy properties developed in a computer environment with the CME technique before the casting phase. This article demonstrates the applicability of this approach in alloy development studies to produce Al-Si alloy wheels using the low pressure die casting (LPDC) method. With this study, an alternative and economical way is presented to the alloy development studies by trial and error in the aluminum casting industry. In other respects, since the study is directly related to the automotive industry, the reduction in fuel consumption in vehicles is an expected effect, as the new alloy aims to reduce the weight of the wheels. In addition to conserving energy, reducing carbon emissions also highlights the environmental aspects of this study.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Yağcı
1
Ü. Cöcen
1
O. Çulha
2

  1. Dokuz Eylul University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, İzmir, Turkey
  2. Manisa Celal Bayar University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Manisa, Turkey
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Abstract

Work was done as a part of the project " New generation haulage system of highly productive longwall systems" aiming to develop and implement a new longwall shearer system called KOMTRACK. The widely used EICOTRACK feed system developed forty years ago is not adapted to modern longwall shearers' power. Within the project, an innovative, flexible feed system with a modular structure was created with the possibility of continuous adjustment to the carbon wall's unevenness. Newly-developed three cast steels variants have been initially selected to fabricate this system's elements. The material's final selection was realized based on the tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, Brinell hardness surveys, and wear resistance measurements. Results analysis allowed to select cast steel marked as "2", which fulfilled all requirements and was used in further casting trials.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Pirowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Grudzień-Rakoczy
2
A. Bitka
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Chrzan
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str., 30-418 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

The influence of the cooling rate on the extent of precipitation hardening of cast aluminum alloy (ADC12) was investigated experimentally. This study explored the cooling rate of the solidification of Cu in the α-Al phase to improve the mechanical properties of ADC12 after an aging process (Cu based precipitation hardening). The solid solution of Cu occurred in the α-Al phases during the casting process at cooling rates exceeding 0.03 °C/s. This process was replaced with a solid solution process of T6 treatments. The extent of the solid solution varied depending on the cooling rate; with a higher cooling rate, a more extensive solid solution was formed. For the cast ADC12 alloy made at a high cooling rate, high precipitation hardening occurred after low-temperature heating (at 175 °C for 20 h), which improved the mechanical properties of the cast Al alloys. However, the low-temperature heating at the higher temperature for a longer time decreased the hardness due to over aging. Keywords: Aluminum alloy, Casting, Precipitation, Solid solution, Aging, Solidification rate
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Okayasu
1
N. Sahara
1
M. Touda
2

  1. Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku, Okayama city, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan
  2. Kyowa Casting Co., Ltd.5418-3 Nishi Ebara-cho, Ibara city, Okayama, 715-0006, Japan
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Abstract

The paper presents an experimental confirmation of the fact that if a three-dimensional volume does not contain spherical particles with particular size, the Probability Density Function (PDF1) of half-chord lengths has proportional ranges. This fact has been deduced in work [1] during the derivation process of the Probability Density Function (PDF3) that maps the particle radii on the basis of data (PDF1) collected from flat cross-sections. The experiment has been executed virtually by using a simple computer program written in the C++11 language. The computer generation of particles allowed imposing various kinds of known PDF3 and the ranges in which the particles could not be created. Next, the virtual nodules have been used to produce sets of chords that served as input data to create histograms that approximated the continuous PDF1. Having such histograms, it was possible to reveal proportional scopes of the PDF1. The proportional dependencies occurred in the same ranges where the nodules had not been generated.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Gurgul
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

The results of microstructure examinations and hardness measurements carried out on two selected grades of high-manganese cast steel with an austenitic matrix, i.e. GX120Mn13 and GX120MnCr18-2, are presented. The examinations of the cast steel microstructure have revealed that the matrix of the GX120MnCr18-2 cast steel contains the precipitates of complex carbides enriched in Cr and Mn with two different morphologies. The presence of these precipitates leads to an increase in hardness by approx. 30 HB compared to the GX120Mn13 cast steel. Samples cut out from the tested materials were loaded (10 strokes) with an energy of 53 J, and then a ball-on-disc tribological test was performed. The test was carried out in reciprocating motion under technically dry friction conditions. While analyzing the obtained results of the microstructure, hardness, and abrasion tests, it was found that the presence of the hard carbide precipitates in the plastic matrix of the tested GX120MnCr18-2 cast steel promoted an increase in hardness, but also led to chipping of these particles from the alloy matrix, thus contributing to micro-cutting during friction.
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Authors and Affiliations

B. Kalandyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Zapała
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Kasińska
2
M. Madej
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Cast Alloys and Composite Engineering, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, 23 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. Kielce University of Technology, al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The study presents methods to be used for improving the performance parameters of car engine pistons made of EN AC-AlSi12CuNiMg alloy according to the PN-EN 1706: 2011. Pistons of slow sucking and turbocharged engines were researched. A solution heat and ageing treatments were applied according to four variants. Temperatures of the solution heat treatment were: 550 ±5°C; 510°C ±5°C; and alternate: 276 ±5°C/510 ±5°C. The solution time ranged from 6 min to 4 h. Temperatures of the ageing heat treatment were 20°C and 250°C, while the ageing time ranged from 1,5 to 3h. Natural ageing was performed in 5 days. Measurements of hardness HRB and the piston diameters were performed. An improvement in the performance parameters of combustion engines was observed. Three solution heat treatment and ageing variants, allowed to obtain the pistons with hardness equal/higher than pistons of the turbocharged engines. The test results confirmed the possibility of providing a piston with properties exceeding the high load parameters specified by the manufacturer. Further studies will make it possible to improve the effects of the proposed solutions.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Trepczyńska-Łent
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Műller
2

  1. Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Al. prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Bergerat Monnoyeur Sp. z o.o. – Caterpillar, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on GX120Mn13 modification performed with the SiZr38 inoculant. The microstructure of Hadfield cast steel in as-cast condition was studied through optical microscopy before and after inoculant introduction into the liquid steel. After heat treatment, mechanical properties and wear resistance tests were conducted to analyse the influence of the inoculant. The wear rate was determined according to the Standard Test Method for Determination of Slurry Abrasivity (ASTM G-75). The results show that average grain diameter, area of eqiuaxed grains crystallization and secondary dendrite arm spacing were lower after inoculation. After inoculation, the ultimate tensile strength and proof strength were higher by 8% and 4% respectively, in comparison to the initial state. The results of abrasion wear tests show that the introduction of 0.02 wt. % of zirconium significantly improved wear resistance, which was 34% better in comparison to steel without zirconium.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Sobula
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Kraiński
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
  2. PGO S.A. Pioma Odlewnia, Oddział w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim, ul. Romana Dmowskiego 38, 97-300 Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland
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Abstract

Casting is one method of making metal components that are widely used in industry and up to date. The sand casting method is used due to its simplicity, ease of operation, and low cost. In addition, the casting method can produce cast products in various sizes and is well-suited for mass production. However, the disadvantage of casting, especially gravity casting, is that it has poor physical and mechanical properties.
Tin bronze Cu20%wt.Sn is melted in a furnace, then poured at a temperature of 1100°C into a sand mold. The cast product is a rod with 400 mm in length, 10 mm in thickness, and 10 mm in width. The heat treatment mechanism is carried out by reheating the cast specimen at a temperature of 650°C, holding it for 4 hours, and then rapid cooling. The specimens were observed microstructure, density, and mechanical properties include tensile strength and bending strength. The results showed that there was a phase change from α + δ to α + β phase, an increase in density as a result of a decrease in porosity and a coarse grain to a fine grain. In addition, the tensile strength and bending strength of the Cu20wt.%Sn alloy were increased and resulted in a more ductile alloy through post-cast heat treatment.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Slamet
1
S. Suyitno
2
I. K. Indraswari Kusumaningtyas
3

  1. Universitas Muria Kudus, Indonesia
  2. Universitas Tidar Magelang, Indonesia
  3. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of calorimetric tests of segment elements of fireplace inserts. The aim of the work was to optimize their thermal power by replacing the previously used gray cast iron with flake graphite with gray iron with vermicular graphite and replacing the existing geometry of the heat transfer surface with a more developed one. It turned out that the thermal power of the test segments made of cast iron with vermicular graphite was higher compared to the segments of the same shape made of gray cast iron with flake graphite. It was found that the use of segments made of vermicular cast iron with a ferritic matrix allowed for an increase in the thermal power value by dozen percent, compared to segments of the same shape made of vermicular cast iron with a pearlitic matrix. The test results showed that the thermal power of the test segments depends on the variant of the development of both the heat receiving surface and the heat giving off surface. The highest value of the thermal power was obtained when ribbing in the form of a lattice was used on both of these surfaces, and the lowest when using flat surfaces.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mróz
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.W. Orłowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Tupaj
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Lenik
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Kawiński
2
M.. Kawiński
2

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstańców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Cast Iron Foundry KAWMET, ul. Krakowska 11, 37-716 Orły, Poland
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Abstract

Simulation is used today in many contexts, such as simulating technology to tune or optimize performance, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and entertainment. In some industries, simulations are commonly used, but in heat treatment this is rather an exception. The paper compares the simulation of carburization and nitrocementation of 16MnCr5 steel with a practical application. The aim was to determine the applicability of chemical heat treatment simulation. We were looking for an answer to the question: to what extent can we rely on the technological design of heat treatment? The software designed the heat treatment technology. He drew the technological process of chemical-thermal treatment of 16MnCr5 steel. The thickness of the cementite layer was 1 mm and the nitrocementation 1.2 mm. Changes in mechanical properties were observed. Cementing, nitrocementing, hardness, microhardness, metallography, and spectral analysis were practically performed. This article describes the benefits of simulation, speed and accuracy of the process. The only difference was in determining the carbon potential. The simulation confirmed the practical use and its contribution in the technological process.
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Authors and Affiliations

E. Kantoríková
1
P. Fabian
1
M. Sýkorová
1

  1. Department of Technological Engineering, University of Žilina in Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to develop a methodology for diagnosing the causes of die-casting defects based on advanced modelling, to correctly diagnose and identify process parameters that have a significant impact on product defect generation, optimize the process parameters and rise the products’ quality, thereby improving the manufacturing process efficiency. The industrial data used for modelling came from foundry being a leading manufacturer of the high-pressure die-casting production process of aluminum cylinder blocks for the world's leading automotive brands. The paper presents some aspects related to data analytics in the era of Industry 4.0. and Smart Factory concepts. The methodology includes computation tools for advanced data analysis and modelling, such as ANOVA (analysis of variance), ANN (artificial neural networks) both applied on the Statistica platform, then gradient and evolutionary optimization methods applied in MS Excel program’s Solver add-in. The main features of the presented methodology are explained and presented in tables and illustrated with appropriate graphs. All opportunities and risks of implementing data-driven modelling systems in high-pressure die-casting processes have been considered.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Okuniewska
1
M.A. Perzyk
1
J. Kozłowski
1

  1. Institute of Manufacturing Technologies, Warsaw University of Technology, Narbutta 85, 02-524 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract


Austenitic chromium-nickel cast steel is used for the production of machine parts and components operating under corrosive conditions combined with abrasive wear. One of the most popular grades is the GX2CrNi18-9 grade, which is used in many industries, and mainly in the chemical, food and mining industries for tanks, feeders, screws and pumps.
To improve the abrasion resistance of chromium-nickel cast steel, primary titanium carbides were produced in the metallurgical process by increasing the carbon content and adding titanium, which after alloy solidification yielded the test castings with the microstructure consisting of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides evenly distributed in this matrix.
The measured hardness of the samples in both as-cast conditions and after solution heat treatment was from 300 to 330HV0.02 and was higher by about 40-70 units compared to the reference GX2CrNi18-9 cast steel, which had the hardness of 258HV0.02.
The abrasive wear resistance of the tested chromium-nickel cast steel, measured in the Miller test, increased by at least 20% (with the content of 1.3 wt% Ti). Increasing the Ti content in the samples to 5.3 and 6.9 wt% reduced the wear 2.5 times compared to the common GX2CrNi18-9 cast steel.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Tęcza
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology,23 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

This article discusses the possibility of using a two-track X-S control card on a Mesas device to control the production process parameters of piston castings for combustion engines. The research was carried out at the Federal-Mogul Gorzyce company. The basis for estimating the variability of the process results from the mean value (X) is the standard deviation (S). Thanks to specially designed measuring stations that use algorithms to calculate process indicators (Cp and/or Cpk) and their visualization, the cost of manufacturing products and the number of non-compliant products (scraps) are reduced. The process stability was investigated by measuring the key dimensions of the piston casting in a specific population and a given measurement cycle. Taking into account the precision of details, their technical condition, and surface quality, the production machines and cutting tools were optimally selected. It has been found that an important element of the effective use of Statistical Process Control (SPC) are trained/experienced operators who can correctly interpret the resulting control chart forms.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Krępa
1
J. Piątkowski
2

  1. Federal-Mogul Gorzyce Sp. z o.o., Odlewników 52, 39-432 Gorzyce, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, Krasińskiego 8 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The possibilities of producing ductile cast iron with the addition of 1 ÷ 3% of tungsten are presented. Tungsten from waste chips from mechanical processing was introduced into the liquid cast iron in the form of specially prepared cartridges. Correct dissolution of tungsten in the metal bath was found, and there were no casting defects in the alloy. The form of carbide precipitates in the microstructure of cast iron was determined and the influence of increasing tungsten content on the reduction of the number of graphite precipitates in the structure was determined. Impact tests show that this property degrades with increasing tungsten content as opposed to hardness which increases. It was found that the addition of tungsten from machining waste is a potential source of enrichment of cast iron with this element.
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Bibliography

[1] Volkov, A.N. (1975). Abrasive wear resistance of manganese cast iron with tungsten. Metal Science and Heat Treatment. 17, 412-414.
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[9] Myszka, D. (2021). Cast Iron–Based Alloys. In: Rana, R. (eds) High-Performance Ferrous Alloys. Springer, Cham., 153-210.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Myszka
1
J. Kasińska
2
A. Penkul
1

  1. Department of Metal Forming and Foundry, Warsaw University of Technology, Narbutta 85, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Kielce University of Technology, al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The technology of high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) of aluminum alloys is one of the most used and most economical technology for mass production of castings. High-pressure die-casting technology is characterized by the production of complex, thin-walled and dimensionally accurate castings. An important role is placed on the effective reduction of costs in the production process, wherein the combination with the technology of high-pressure die-casting is the possibility of recycling using returnable material. The experimental part of the paper focuses on the analysis of a gradual increase of the returnable material amount in combination with a commercial purity alloy for the production of high-pressure die-castings. The returnable material consisted of the so-called foundry waste (defective castings, venting and gating systems, etc.). The first step of the experimental castings evaluation consisted of numerical simulations, performed to determine the points of the casting, where porosity occurs. In the next step, the evaluation of areal porosity and microstructural analysis was performed on experimental castings with different amounts of returnable material in the batch. The evaluation of the area porosity showed only a small effect of the increased amount of the returnable material in the batch, where the worst results were obtained by the casting of the alloy with 90% but also with 55% of the returnable material in the batch. The microstructure analysis showed that the increase in returnable material in the batch was visibly manifested only by a change in the morphology of the eutectic Si.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Matejka
1
D. Bolibruchová
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Podprocká
2

  1. University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Technological Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina, Slovak Republic
  2. Rosenberg-Slovakia s.r.o., Kováčska 38, 044 25 Medzev, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

The purpose of the work was to determine the morphology of graphite that occurs in vermicular cast iron, both in the as-cast state and after heat treatment including austenitization (held at a temperature of 890 °C or 960 °C for 90 or 150 min) and isothermal quenching (i.e. austempering, at a temperature of 290 °C or 390 °C for 90 or 150 min). In this case, the aim here was to investigate whether the heat treatment performed, in addition to the undisputed influence of the cast iron matrix on the formation of austenite and ferrite, also affects the morphology of the vermicular graphite precipitates and to what extent. The investigations were carried out for the specimens cut from test coupons cast in the shape of an inverted U letter (type IIb according to the applicable standard); they were taken from the 25mm thick walls of their test parts. The morphology of graphite precipitates in cast iron was investigated using a Metaplan 2 metallographic microscope and a Quantimet 570 Color image analyzer. The shape factor F was calculated as the quotient of the area of given graphite precipitation and the square of its perimeter. The degree of vermicularization of graphite was determined as the ratio of the sum of the graphite surface and precipitates with F <0.05 to the total area occupied by all the precipitations of the graphite surface. The examinations performed revealed that all the heat-treated samples made of vermicular graphite exhibited the lower degree of vermicularization of the graphite compared to the corresponding samples in the as-cast state (the structure contains a greater fraction of the nodular or nearly nodular precipitates). Heat treatment also caused a reduction in the average size of graphite precipitates, which was about 225μm2 for the as-cast state, and dropped to approximately 170-200 μm2 after the austenitization and austempering processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.S. Soiński
1
A. Jakubus
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Borowiecki
1
P. Mierzwa
2

  1. The Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski, ul. Teatralna 25, 66-400 Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland
  2. Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

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