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Acta Geologica Polonica

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Acta Geologica Polonica | 2021 | vol. 71 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Starting from a subjective viewpoint on the decreasing interest in invertebrate fossil taxonomy, this essay discusses its importance in palaeobiological studies exemplified with cases from the palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology of rugose corals, and aims at provoking a discussion on the topic. The possible causes of this negative declining trend include inherent problems of palaeontological taxonomy, and changing systems in science and higher education.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Fedorowski
1

  1. Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Bogumiła Krygowskiego 12, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
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Authors and Affiliations

William James Kennedy
1

  1. Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3P Wand Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Rare erratic clasts – extraneous rock types – occur in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk, including a local basal facies, the Cambridge Greensand. The underlying Upper Albian Gault Clay and the Hunstanton Red Chalk Formations have also yielded erratics. The discovery of these erratics, their description and the development of hypotheses to explain their origins and significance are reviewed. They became the subject of scientific interest with the interpretation of a particularly large example “The Purley Boulder” by Godwin-Austen (1858) as having been transported to its depositional site in the Chalk Sea by drifting coastal ice. Thin section petrography (1930–1951) extended knowledge of their diverse provenance. At the same time the Chalk Sea had become interpreted as warm, so drifting ice was considered out of context, and the preferred agents of transport were entanglement in the roots of drifting trees, as holdfasts of floating marine algae, or as stomach stones of marine reptiles or large fish. Reconsideration of their occurrence, variable nature and sedimentary setting suggests that there are three zones in the English Chalk where erratics may be less rare (1) near the base of the Cenomanian in the Cambridge area, (2) the Upper Cenomanian–Middle Turonian in Surrey, and (3) the Upper Coniacian and Lower Santonian of Kent. The assemblage from each level and their sedimentary setting is subtly different. Present evidence suggests that the erratics found in the Upper Albian–Lower Cenomanian and the Upper Cenomanian–Middle Turonian zones represent shallow water and shoreline rocks that were transported into the Chalk Sea by coastal ice (fast-ice) that enclosed coastal marine sediments as it froze. The Upper Coniacian and Lower Santonian erratics from Rochester and Gravesend in Kent are gastroliths.
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Authors and Affiliations

Christopher V. Jeans
1
Ian M. Platten
2

  1. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, UK
  2. 4 Little Youngs, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, AL8 6SL, UK
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish the stratigraphic extent of a putative Tournaisian Stage within the Carboniferous succession in the Lublin Basin. The oldest part of the succession, known as the Huczwa Formation and comprising depositional sequences 1–4, was investigated based on lithofacies analysis, sequence stratigraphy and petrographic studies. The article provides descriptions of depositional sequences, parasequences (cyclothems) and lithofacies that were formed in a range of environments (elements of depositional architecture) and as a result of volcanic processes – lava and pyroclastic eruptions and chemical weathering of their products. Correlation of the sequence stratigraphy to the West European and global Carboniferous chronostratigraphic divisions, as well as to the Khoriv suite in the Lviv-Volyn Basin in adjacent Ukraine, indicates a putative late Tournaisian age for sequence 1, and a late Visean age for sequences 2–4. There is a stratigraphic gap between sequences 1 and 2, spanning probably the uppermost Tournaisian and the lower and middle Visean. The upper Tournaisian is represented by the FRST-LST deposits of sequence 1, comprising mainly volcaniclastic conglomerates and sandstones developed in braided-river channels and incised valleys with hyperconcentrated flow processes. These deposits are represented by polymictic paraconglomerate and lithic/sublithic/subarkose arenites or sublithic wackes, and contain predominantly grains of acidic and alkaline volcanic and igneous rocks. This material probably came from the Łuków-Wisznice Elevation and the Volynian Polesia region, located to the NE and E of the Lublin Basin. In the uppermost part of sequence 1, volcanic rocks and tuffs appear which developed during the activity of at least three volcanic cones in the Lublin Basin. The volcanoes were the source of alkaline lavas in the central and SW areas of the basin, and of acidic lavas in the SE area, previously undescribed. The Visean sequences 2–4 consist of the FRST-LST sediments deposited within incised valleys. The TST and HST deposits accumulated mainly in a shallow ramp-type carbonate shelf, shallow clayey shelf and deltaic environments.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria I. Waksmundzka
1
Aleksandra Kozłowska
1
Magdalena Pańczyk
1

  1. Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute, Rakowiecka 4, PL-00-975 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The Campanian–Paleocene Jaworzynka Formation, a part of the Magura Nappe succession in the Polish Outer Carpathians, is described in terms of its detailed litho- and biostratigraphy. The formation stretches along the marginal part of the Siary Unit, from the Jaworzynka stratotype area in the Silesian Beskid Mts up to the Mszana Dolna area in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. Its equivalent in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts of the Czech Republic is the Soláň Formation. In the stratotype area, the formation displays complex structure. We distinguish four lithological units, i.e., Biotite Sandstone and Shale (I), Shale (II), Mutne Sandstone Member (III) and Thin-bedded Turbidite (IV) and provide the first detailed biostratigraphy of particular units. The first unit forms the most prominent part of the formation. It was deposited in the Middle Campanian–earliest Maastrichtian within the upper part of Caudammina gigantea Zone up to the lower part of the Rzehakina inclusa Zone. The second unit occurs only locally and its age is limited to the Maastrichtian, to the Rzehakina inclusa Zone. The third unit is composed of thick-bedded sandstones that in some parts may form more than the half of the total thickness of the formation. It is Late Maastrichtian–Danian in age and is placed in the upper part of the Rzehakina inclusa Zone and the lower part of the Rzehakina fissistomata Zone. It is usually covered by a thin package of thin-bedded turbiditic sandstone and shales of Danian–Thanetian age with foraminifera of the Rzehakina fissistomata Zone.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Waśkowska
1
Jan Golonka
1
Krzysztof Starzec
1
Marek Cieszkowski
2

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Geology, Gronostajowa 3a, 30-387 Kraków, Poland

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