Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In this investigation, the formation of oxide scales on different Co-Ni based superalloys of γ–γ′ type was analyzed. Co-20Ni-7Al-7W (at. %) alloy as well as its W-free modifications based on Co-Ni-Al-Mo-Nb and Co-Ni-Al-Ta systems was analyzed under conditions of high temperature oxidation at 800 and 900°C. Therefore, the alloys were isothermally oxidized at selected temperatures for 100 h in laboratory furnace. Afterwards, the oxidation products were evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performed tests showed that W-free alloys exhibit worse oxidation resistance compared to those of Co-Ni-Al-W alloys. After oxidation at 900°C, all alloys were prone of oxide spallation. The scales characterized by oxide peeling were mostly composed of complex Co-based oxides, including CoWO4, CoTa2O6, Co2Mo3O8, CoNb2O6.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Migas
M. Kierat
G. Moskal
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Abstract

Recycling of aluminium returnable material through its reuse is now an essential component of the production of aluminium alloy castings. The main goal is to find a suitable ratio of the primary alloy and the returnable material in the batch, thus determining the right compromise between the price and the quality of the casting. Experimental alloys were evaluated by thermal analysis, combination of structural analytical techniques and selected mechanical properties. The alloys were also subjected to tearing susceptibility testing. The increase in the returnable material amount resulted in changes in the alloy properties at the first increase in volume to 20%. After exceeding the balanced ratio (50:50), there was considerable degradation of the microstructure, failure to achieve the minimum values of some mechanical properties required by the standard, and the alloy showed increased susceptibility to tearing.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Matejka
D. Bolibruchová
M. Chalupová
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Abstract

The goal of this article is to application of non-silica sands based on alumininosilicates as an alternative of traditionally used chromite sand for alloyed steel and iron castings. Basic parameters as bulk density, pH value of water suspension, refractoriness, grain shape of the testing sands were evaluated. Also mechanical properties of furan no-bake moulding mixtures with testing sand were determined. Finally, the influence of non-silica sand on casting quality was evaluated via semi-scale under normal casting production for sand characterization Optimization of production process and production costs were described.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Beňo
M. Poręba
T. Bajer
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Abstract

The application of hardfacing is one of the ways to restore the functional properties of worn elements. The possibility of using filler materials rich in chrome allows for better wear resistance than base materials used so far. The paper presents the results of research on the use of 3 different grades of covered electrodes for the regeneration of worn track staves. The content of the carbon in the covered electrodes was from 0,5% to 7% and the chromium from 5% to 33%. The microscopic and hardness tests revealed large differences in the structure and properties of the welds. The differences in the hardness of the welds between the materials used were up to 150 HV units. The difference in wear resistance, in the ASTM G65 test, between the best and worst materials was almost 12 times big.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Gucwa
J. Winczek
P. Wieczorek
M. Mičian
R. Koňár
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Abstract

For the EN GX4CrNi13-4 martensitic stainless steel, research was conducted to investigate the impact of the quenching intensity and the content of nickel on the mechanical properties and amount of retained austenite. It was found that the amount of retained austenite significantly increases with growing nickel concentration. On the other hand, the cooling rate at quenching makes a difference only if the cooling is intensive, then amount of retained austenite decrease. A higher nickel content improves the mechanical properties. With more intensive cooling, the tensile strength decreases while the yield strength increases. The ductility is not significantly affected by the cooling intensity.

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Authors and Affiliations

V. Kaňa
V. Krutiš
P. Bořil
A. Záděra
M. Rimko
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Abstract

The paper presents the problem which concerning the technology of bimetallic castings in materials configuration: high-chromium steel as the working layer and grey cast iron as the base part. The aim of the studies was integrate the process of manufacturing of bimetallic casting with the heat treatment of hardening type of X46Cr13 steel insert by applying the mould with sandmix on a matrix of chromite sand. Range of studies included the chemical composition analysis, non-destructive ultrasonic tests to examine the quality of the permanent bond between the working layer (steel insert) and the base part (grey cast iron) of the bimetallic castings, hardness measurements as well as metallographic examinations performed on the optical and scanning electron microscopes. On the basis of obtained results was concluded that the self-hardening process occurred in the X46Cr 13 steel working layer and in result of this the hardness on its surface equalled approx. 45HRC in case of the bimetallic castings with full permanent bond between both parts.

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Authors and Affiliations

N. Przyszlak
T. Wróbel
A. Dulska
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Abstract

The article presents the technology of layered casting with the use of 3D printing to make a frame insert. The insert was made of powdered titanium and then filled with liquid cast iron. The paper presents the results of research, including structure observation and hardness measurements, as well as abrasion resistance tests. The results indicate the possibility of creating a local reinforcement using a frame insert. The resulting casting is characterized by a local increase in hardness and, in addition, an increase in abrasion resistance of the entire surface layer. The quality of the obtained connection depends strongly on the casting parameters.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dulska
J. Szajnar
M. Król
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Abstract

This paper presents results of a study of the effect of inoculation of yttrium on the microstructure of AZ91 alloy. The concentration of the inoculant was increased in samples in the range from 0.1% up to 0.6%. The influence of Y on the thermal effects resulting from the phase transformations occurring during the crystallisation at different inoculant concentrations were examined with the use of Derivative and Thermal Analysis (DTA). The microstructures of the samples were examined with the use of an optical microscope; and an image analysis with a statistical analysis were also carried out. Those analyses aimed at examining oh the effect of inoculation of the Y on the differences between the grain diameters of phase αMg and eutectic αMg + γ(Mg17Al12) in the prepared examined material as well as the average size of each type of grain by way of measuring their perimeters.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Mikusek
C. Rapiejko
A. Andrzejczak
T. Pacyniak
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Abstract

The article is focused on the synergic effect of constant content of Zr and higher content of Ti on mechanical properties Al-Si alloy. The Ti additions were in proportions of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 wt.% Ti. The casting process was carried out in ceramic molds, created for the investment casting technology. Half of the experimental samples were processed by precipitation curing T6. The measured results were compared with primary alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 and experimental alloy AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5Zr0.15. In variant with addition 0.1 wt. %, the tensile strength Rm increased by 1,5% but the elongation AM decreased to 40%. Variants with 0.2 and 0.3 wt. % addition of Ti achieved similar Rm but approximately 40% decrease in AM. However, it is interesting that yield strength Rp0.2 increased for all variants by approximately 14 to 20%. The results point out the possibility of developing a more sophisticated alloy for automotive industry.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Bolibruchová
M. Kuriš
M. Matejka
K. Major-Gabryś
M. Vicen
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Abstract

The paper presents the research results concerning the chromium-nickel-molybdenum duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade. The aim of studies was the description of the influence of hyperquenching temperature Tp i.e. 1100, 1125 and 1150℃ on microstructure and mainly mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength UTS, yield strength YS, hardness HB, elongation EL and impact energy KV of duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade. The range of studies included ten melts which were conducted in foundry GZUT S.A. Based on the obtained results was confirmed that application of hyperquenching process guarantees the elimination of brittle s phase in the microstructure of studied duplex cast steel. Moreover on the basis of conducted statistical analysis of the researches results is concluded that with the decrease in hyperquenching temperature increases ductility and amount of austenite, while decreases strength and amount of ferrite in studied duplex cast steel GX2CrNiMoCuN 25-6-3-3 grade.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Jurczyk
T. Wróbel
Cz. Baron
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Abstract

This research is focused on the analysis of heat-affected sub-zones in 2 mm thick steel S960MC samples, with the aim of observing and evaluating the mechanical properties after exposure to temperatures corresponding to individual heat-affected sub-zones. Test samples were prepared using a Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The samples were heated in the range from 550°C to 1350°C and were subsequently quickly cooled. The specimens, together with the base material, were then subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and micro-hardness measurements in the sample cross-section, as well as evaluation of their microstructure. Fracture surfaces are investigated in samples after impact testing. The heat-affected sub-zones studied indicate high sensitivity to the thermal input of welding. There is a significant decrease in tensile strength and yield strength at temperatures around 550°C.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mičian
J. Winczek
D. Harmaniak
R. Koňár
M. Gucwa
J. Moravec
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Abstract

Aurivillius Bi5-xHoxTi3FeO15 (BHTFO) multiferroic ceramics with different holmium doping contents were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. The effect of holmium doping on the microstructure, structural and dielectric behaviors of BHTFO ceramics were investigated in details. Microstructure and crystalline structure studies of ceramics were carried out at room temperature while dielectric properties were investigated in a wide range of temperature (T = 25ºC-550ºC) and frequency (20Hz-1MHz).

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Tomaszewska
J. Dzik
ORCID: ORCID
B. Wodecka-Duś
ORCID: ORCID
T. Pikula
ORCID: ORCID
M. Adamczyk-Habrajska
ORCID: ORCID
D. Szalbot
ORCID: ORCID
D. Chocyk
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Abstract

Nowadays, aluminum-based composites have been produced by pure alumina (Al2O3) or pure graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in aluminum matrix because of the high compressive strength of alumina and the solid lubricant properties of graphene. However, there are no studies on the influence of both alumina and graphene reinforced aluminum composites. In this study, Al-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3-GNPs composites were reinforced with pure alumina (between 0 and 30 wt.%), pure graphene (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 wt.%), and their hybrid forms (Al2O3-GNPs) by the powder metallurgy method. This method involved ultrasonic dispensing, mixing, filtering, drying, pressing, and sintering processes. From the test results, the micro Vickers hardness of pure aluminum (28.2±1 HV) improved to 51.5±0.8 HV (Al-30Al2O3) and 63.1±1 HV (Al-30Al2O3-0.1GNPs). Similarly, the ultimate compressive strength (UCS) enhanced from 92.4±4 MPa (pure aluminum) to 165±4.5 MPa (Al-30Al2O3) and 188±5 MPa (Al-30Al2O3-0.1GNPs), respectively. In conclusion, the Vickers hardness and ultimate compressive strength of aluminum hybrid composites improved up to 0.1 wt.% graphene content. After 0.1 wt.% graphene content, these mechanical properties decreased because of the clumping of graphene nanoparticles.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Can Şenel
M. Gürbüz
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Abstract

We propose an empirical equation to predict the martensite start temperatures of highly alloyed steels containing more than 3 wt.% of Ni or Cr or 2 wt.% of Mo, W, or Co. The martensite start temperature calculated by the proposed equation was in good agreement with experimental data owing to not only the derivation from experimental data of alloy steels with a wide range of chemical compositions but also the interaction term between carbon and carbide-forming alloying elements.

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Authors and Affiliations

Seok-Jae Lee
ORCID: ORCID
Minsu Jung
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Abstract

Cu-2wt%Ag alloy with diameter of 10 mm was fabricated by induction heating directional solidification (IHDS). The effect of different mold temperatures on microstructure of IHDS Cu-2wt%Ag alloy was investigated. The results show that IHDS ­Cu-2wt%Ag alloy is mainly composed of coarse columnar grains at mold temperature of 1075°C. While the mold temperature is at 1100°C, 1150°C and 1200°C, respectively, the IHDS Cu-2wt%Ag alloy is composed of columnar grains and equiaxed grains and the number of grains increases. Meanwhile, the growth direction of columnar grains in the edge of alloys deviates from the direction of continuous casting to form “V” shape. While the mold temperature is controlled at high temperature, the induced current increases, which leads to the enhancement of eddy current in the mold. Therefore, the dendrites fall off to form new grains under the effect of eddy stirring, resulting in an increasing in the number of grains.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jihui Luo
Yangyang Li
Yanke Huang
Yuehao Huang
Yuling Zheng
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Abstract

A hot compression test was conducted on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine to study the critical conditions and kinetics of dynamic recrystallization in a high-carbon tool steel. The critical conditions for the initiation of dynamic recrystallization were determined using the working-hardening theory. The quantitative relationship between the critical characteristics of dynamic recrystallization and the hot deformation parameters were elucidated based on two different methods:the apparent method and physically based method. It was found that the two methods both have high applicability for the investigated steel, but the physically-based method needs less parameters and makes it possible to study the effect of different factors. A dynamic recrystallization kinetics model was used to calculate the recrystallization volume fraction under different conditions. The calculation results matched well with the data obtained from the flow curves.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yong-Ji Zhang
Guang-Liang Wu
Shang-Wen Wu
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Abstract

Nickel slag has a high-content iron and is a secondary utilization resource with great development potential. The coal-based direct reduction is an innovative technology that can be used to utilize the iron resources in nickel slag. The effect of the particle size of nickel slag on the strength and the reduction of nickel slag-coal composite briquettes were investigated. Four samples with particle size of 75~106 μm, 106~150 μm, 150~270 μm, and >270 μm were selected. The drop strength increased 9.4 times and the compressive strength reached 281.1 N when the nickel slag particle size decreased from >270 μm to 75~106 μm. The reduction degree determined by the data from the thermogravimetric experiment indicated that its maximum was 79.545%. The reduction experiments performed at 1200°C for 45 minutes indicated that the nickel slag with particle sizes between 75~106 µm were appropriate for the reduction of the nickel slag-coal composite briquettes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xiaoming Li
Yi Li
Xiangdong Xing
Yanjun Wang
Zhenyu Wen
Haibo Yang
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Abstract

Packaging steels are thin gauge flat carbon steels coated with tin or chrome on both sides. They are very important raw materials for the production of steel packaging, which allow food to be stored safely and with an extended shelf life. The publication focuses on the production process of ETP and ECCS steel, as well as the problem of corrosion of steel packaging.

The topic of legislative changes that require the elimination of chromium (VI) compounds from the steel passivation process was also discussed. The packaging steel industry is currently facing the need to develop a new passivation technology. Leading packaging steel manufacturers in cooperation with varnish and paint suppliers have developed chromium (VI) free technologies by implementing chromium (III) compounds and titanium oxide technology.

Authors focus also on new trends and potential development directions for the packaging steel industry.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Słowik
P. Cępa
K. Czapla
P. Żabiński
ORCID: ORCID
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Abstract

The high-temperature deformation process and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process of 21-4N were investigated under the conditions of the deformation temperature range of 1273~1453K, the strain rate range of 0.01~10s–1 and the deformation degree of 60% (the total deformation is 0.916) by using Gleeble-1500D thermal simulated test machine. The curves of stress-strain (σ – ε) were obtained, and the curves of work hardening rate (θ) and strain (ε) were obtained by taking derivative of σ – ε. The DRX critical strains under different conditions were determined by the curves of work hardening rate (θ – ε), and the DRX critical strain model was established. The peak strains of 21-4N were obtained by the curves of σ – ε, the relationship between peak stress (σp) and critical strain (εc) was determined, and the peak strain model was established. The DRX volume fraction models of 21-4N were established by using Avrami equation. The DRX grain size of 21-4N was calculated by Image Pro Plus 6.0, and its DRX grain size models were established.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yiming Li
Xiaomin Huang
Hongchao Ji
Yaogang Li
Baoyu Wang
Xuefeng Tang
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Abstract

Refill friction stir spot welding (RFSSW) was used to weld the 2060 aluminum alloy with 2 mm thickness. Joint formation, defect characteristics and mechanical properties were investigated. Results show that stir zone (SZ) is clarified into dynamic recrystallization zone (DRZ) and heat extruded zone (HEZ) due to different microstructural features. The size of void near the hook tip decreases with the increase of the plunge depth. Different hook morphologies are obtained under different plunge depths. The tensile-shear load of joint with the void defect initially decreases and then increases with increasing plunge depth. The mean loads of joints under different plunge depths are in the range of 5.1-5.8 kN. The void separates the hook from lap interface, so the cracks initiating from the hook propagate along the sleeve retreating path. The hook has a larger influence on the tensile-shear load of joint than void. All the tensile specimens present a shear-plug fracture mode.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zhen Shang
Yingying Zuo
Shude Ji
Yue Wang
ORCID: ORCID
Peng Chai
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Abstract

The study investigates the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure evolution and properties of an age-hardened ­Cu-3Ti-2Mg alloy. The precipitated Cu2Mg and β'-Cu4Ti phases consequently yield a depletion of the Cu matrix in regards to Ti and Mg solutes, which enhances the electrical conductivity. The Cu2Mg Laves phase and β'-Cu4Ti phase precipitates increase the hardness of the alloy due to the consistency and coherency of the later phase. However, the decrease of hardness is mainly associated with the coarse microstructures, that can be formed due to the phase transformation from metastable β'-Cu4Ti phase to more stable Cu3Ti phase. In the range of experiments, the optimum process is solution treatment at 700°C for 4 h, with subsequent age-hardening at 450°C for 4 h. The electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation of the Cu-3Ti-2Mg alloy were 15.34 %IACS, 344 HV, 533 MPa, and 12%, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jituo Liu
Xianhui Wang
Jia Liu
Qianni Ran
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Abstract

Ti-containing steel weld metals with Al contents of 0.01-0.085% were prepared. The effects of Al contents on the inclusions evolution were investigated by means of thermodynamic calculations coupled with electron probe micro-analyses and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the inclusions in the 0.01% Al weld metal are mainly composed of ilmenite with some amounts of (Mn-Si-Al)-oxide and titanial_spinel. When Al content is increased up to 0.035%, a more amount of corundum and a small amount of pseudobrookite are formed. In 0.085% Al weld metal, the (Mn-Si-Al)-oxide disappears completely, and the inclusions contain a substantial amount of corundum, in addition to a minimal amount of pseudobrookite. Ti3O5, MnTi2O4 and MnTiO3 are the primary constituents of pseudobrookite, titanial_spinel and ilmenite, respectively. Titanial_spinel and ilmenite have higher amounts of Mn, but lower Ti levels compared with pseudobrookite. In the case of presence of a considerable amounts of titanial_spinel and ilmenite, Mn-depleted zone is formed in matrix around the inclusions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bingxin Wang
Yingtian Jiang
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Abstract

The influence of the processing temperature of polylactide (PLA) on the structure geometry changing (SGC) and its functional properties were analyzed. The PLA samples subjected to testing were manufactured using incremental fused deposition modeling technology (FDM) with processing temperatures ranging from 180°C to 230°C. The topography of the PLA surfaces formed during heat dissipation and generated by the work table was analyzed. The roughness measurements were carried out using the profile method in accordance with PN ISO 3274: 2011. Registered profiles of the surfaces were analyzed numerically in fractal terms using the method of the S(Δx) structure function. The functional properties of the PLA surface were evaluated on the basis of Abbott-Firestone curves, according to PN EN ISO 13565–2: 1999.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Pszczółkowski
M. Bramowicz
ORCID: ORCID
W. Rejmer
T. Chrostek
C. Senderowski
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Abstract

This paper presents an investigation into effect of nitrogen content of shielding gas mixture on weld geometry, microstructure and hardness of pulsed laser welded 2205 duplex stainless steel. Full penetration autogenous welding was performed on 2 mm thick plates using a low power pulsed Nd: YAG laser. light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the resulting microstructures. It is observed that 2 mm full penetrated joint decreases to 1.8 mm by dominating nitrogen in argon-nitrogen mixture. Different morphologies of austenite phase as well as an increase of 8% of its content can be observed in pure nitrogen shielded welds. Average weld grain size in sample which is welded in nitrogen atmosphere stands at approximately 41 μm which is smaller than that of argon atmosphere which is about 51 μm. Micro-hardness test reveals that hardness values increase from 280 HV in base metal to 307 HV in weld center line and the shielding gas mixture does not significantly influence the weld hardness.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Hajibaba Gozarganji
A. Farnia
M. Ebrahimnia
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Abstract

Thermal fatigue properties of WCu45/FeCr18Ni9 steel brazed joint with Ni-Cr-Si-B filler metal were investigated. Results indicated that the fatigue damage of Ni-based joint was aggravated with the increased of thermal fatigue cycles times. Moreover, the fatigue cracks appeared in the brazing seam and FeCr18Ni9 steel side near the brazing seam, and the bending strength of the brazed joint decreased from 333 MPa of original joint to 160 MPa of having experienced 200 thermal fatigue cycles. The fracture characteristic of Ni-based joint underwent 200 cycles was identified as mixed ductile-brittle fracture under the combined effect of external bending load and internal fatigue damage.

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Authors and Affiliations

Chunzhi Xia
Linling Fu
Wenchao Du
Xiangping Xu
Xiling Wang
Jiasheng Zou
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Abstract

In this study, AZ91 Magnesium alloy is produced by cold chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) method. Different combinations of the cold chamber HPDC process parameters were selected as; in-mold pressure values of 1000 bar and 1200 bar, the gate speed of 30 m/s and 45 m/s, the casting temperatures of 640°C and 680°C. In addition, the test samples were produced by conventional casting method. Tensile test, hardness test, dry sliding wear test and microstructure analysis of samples were performed. The mechanical properties of the samples produced by the cold chamber HPDC and the conventional casting method were compared. Using these parameters; the casting temperature 680°C, in-mold pressure 1000 bar and the gate speed 30 m/s, the highest tensile strength and the hardness value were obtained. Since the cooling rate in the conventional casting method is slower than that of the cold chamber HPDC method, high mechanical properties are obtained by the formation of a fine-grained structure in the cold chamber HPDC method. In dry sliding wear tests, it was observed that there was a decrease in friction coefficient and less material loss with the increase of hardness values of the sample produced by the cold chamber HPDC method.

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Authors and Affiliations

Levent Urtekin
Recep Arslan
Fatih Bozkurt
Ümit Er
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Abstract

Ultrasonic assisted active-passive filling friction stir repairing (A-PFFSR) was proposed to repair volume defects in the metallic parts. Sound joints without interfacial defects could be achieved. Firstly, the ultrasonic was beneficial to improving material flow and atom diffusion, and then eliminated kissing bond defects compared to conventional A-PFFSR joints. Secondly, the equiaxed grains were refined by ultrasonic vibration. Lastly, the repairing passes were reduced due to the ultrasonic, which decreased softening degree of the repaired joints. The maximum tensile strength of 150 MPa was achieved. Therefore, this strategy to repair the volume defects is feasibility and potential in the remanufacturing fields of aerospace and transportation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tao Wang
ORCID: ORCID
Xue Gong
Shude Ji
Gang Xue
Zan Lv
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Abstract

Suitable and complete sets of stress-strain curves significantly affected by dynamic recrystallization were analyzed for 11 different iron, copper, magnesium, titanium or nickel based alloys. Using the same methodology, apparent hot deformation activation energy Qp and Qss values were calculated for each alloy based on peak stress and steady-state stress values. Linear dependence between quantities Qp and Qss was found, while Qp values are on average only about 6% higher. This should not be essential in predicting true stress of a specific material depending on the temperature-compensated strain rate and strain.

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Authors and Affiliations

I. Schindler
P. Opěla
P. Kawulok
M. Sauer
S. Rusz
D. Kuc
K. Rodak
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Abstract

The interface characteristics, bending and impact behavior, as well as fracture characteristics of stainless steel clad plates fabricated by vacuum hot rolling at different rolling temperatures of 1100°C, 1200°C and 1300°C are investigated in detail. The interface bonding strength is gradually increased with the increasing rolling temperature due to the sufficient diffusion behavior of alloy element. The bending toughness and impact toughness are gradually decreased, while the bending strength increase with the increase of the rolling temperature, which is attributed to mechanisms of matrix softening and interface strengthening at high rolling temperature. Due to the weak interface at 1100°C, the bending and impact crack propagation path was displaced by delamination cracks, which in turn lead to reduction in stress intensity of the main crack, playing an effective role in toughening the stainless steel clad plates. Moreover, the impact fracture morphologies of clad plates show a typical ductile-brittle transition phenomenon, which is attributed to the matrix softening behavior with the increasing rolling temperature.

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Authors and Affiliations

Q. An
K.Y. Fan
Y.F. Ge
B.X. Liu
J. He
S. Wang
C.X. Chen
P.G. Ji
O. Tolochko
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Abstract

Nickel alloys, despite their good strength properties at high temperature, are characterized by limited weldability due to their susceptibility to hot cracking. So far, theories describing the causes of hot cracking have focused on the presence of impurities in the form of sulphur and phosphorus. These elements form low-melting eutectic mixtures that cause discontinuities, most frequently along solid solution grain boundaries, under the influence of welding deformations. Progress in metallurgy has effectively reduced the presence of sulphur and phosphorus compounds in the material, however, the phenomenon of hot cracking continues to be the main problem during the welding of nickel-based alloys. It was determined that nickel-based alloys, including Inconel 617, show a tendency towards hot cracking within the high-temperature brittleness range (HTBR). There is no information on any structural changes occurring in the HTBR. Moreover, the literature indicates no correlations between material-related factors connected with structural changes and the amount of energy delivered into the material during welding.

This article presents identification of correlations between these factors contributes to the exploration of the mechanism of hot cracking in solid-solution strengthened alloys with an addition of cobalt (e.g. Inconel 617). The article was ended with development of hot cracking model for Ni-Cr-Mo-Co alloys.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Adamiec
N. Konieczna
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Abstract

Low manganese and sulfur gray irons were produced by adding inoculant base Fe-Si with small amounts of Al and Ca in the ladle. The effect of the cast thickness, inoculant amount and shakeout time of the green sand molds were studied on the graphite flake formation by microscopically techniques. A thermodynamic analysis was carried out for the cast iron produced with the FactSage 7.2 software. Stability phase diagrams were obtained for both gray cast irons to different manganese (0.1 to 0.9 wt.%) and sulfur (0.01 to 0.12 wt.%) amounts to 1150°C. It was shown that lower amounts of manganese and sulfur allow forming the 3Al2O3·2SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2 solid compounds. The thermodynamic results match with those obtained by SEM-EDS. It is possible to form MnS particles in the liquid phase when the solubility product (%Mn) × (%S) equals 0.042 and 0.039 for heats A and B, respectively.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Reyes-Castellanos
A. Cruz-Ramírez
E. Colin-García
V.H. Gutiérrez-Pérez
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Abstract

In this study, microstructural and crystallographic properties of phase transformations occurring with thermal effect in Fe-XMn-Mo-Si (X = 15.14wt.% ve 18.45wt.%) alloys have been investigated. The effects of (wt.%) Mn rates in the alloy on the characteristics of phase transformations were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM investigations was observed that two different martensite (ε and α') structures were formed in austenite grain. In addition, in TEM observations, the interface regions were selected over the bright field image. Crystallographic orientation relationships were obtained by the analyses of electron diffraction patterns from the interface regions. γ → α' type transformation was observed for α' particle formation, and orientation relationship was found as (1–11)γ // (011)α', [101]γ // [1–11–]α' and, γ → ε type transformation was observed for ε martensite plate formation, and the orientation relationship was found as (1–11–)γ // (0002–)ε, [1–1–0]γ // [2–110]ε. It was noticed that this orientation relationships were compatible with the literature (Kurdjumov-Sachs and Shoji-Nishiyama orientation relationship). Precipitation phase (carbide) formation was observed in microstructure analyses. The changes in the magnetic properties of the alloys having different rates of Mn as a consequence of thermal effect phase transformations was investigated by using Mössbauer Spectroscopy. The internal magnetic field, volume fractions (transformation rates), isomer shift values and magnetic characteristics of the main and product phases were revealed by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. In the Mössbauer Spectrum, it was noticed that ε-martensite and γ-austenite structures showed paramagnetic single-peak, and α'-martensite showed ferromagnetic six-peaks.

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Authors and Affiliations

Osman Armağan
Talip Kirindi
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Abstract

In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of amorphous-nanocrystalline Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy with different crystallite sizes were investigated. The Ni50Ti50 homogenized specimens were hot rolled and annealed at 950°C. Thereafter, the nanocrystalline Ni50Ti50 specimens with different crystalline sizes in the range of 40-350 nm were prepared by cold rolling and annealing at temperature range of 400 to 900oC. The corrosion resistance of Ni50Ti50 specimen with coarse grain size has significantly increased after cold rolling as a result of the formation of amorphous-nanocrystalline structure. The amorphous and nanocrystalline (with the crystallite size of about 40 nm) Ni50Ti50 samples exhibited the best corrosion resistance in the 5% HCl electrolyte with the corrosion potential and corrosion current density of about –197 mV and 2.34×10–6 A/cm2, respectively. This effect can be attributed to the higher density of crystalline defects in amorphous and nanocrystalline structures to quickly form protective films on the surface.

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Authors and Affiliations

H. Aghabeygzadeh
E. Mohammad Sharifi
M. Tavoosi
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on the effect of added iron powder from plasma cutting on the mechanical properties and structure of a composite rod based on aluminum powder. The iron powder came from plasma cutting of steel elements and was handed over by the enterprise “AK Anatol” from Żary. One of the ways to dispose of it is to use it as a filler in aluminum composite rods. Research shows that Fe can be distributed in aluminum evenly, and increase in mechanical properties is achieved at the expense of only a slight increase in density. The proposed system does not reduce the amount of waste produced by plasma cutting but finds a use for some of it. The sintering point of the powder required a strongly reducing atmosphere (PO2 < 10–50 atm) which seems virtually unachievable under laboratory conditions. The reinforcing mechanism is related to the fragmentation of the matrix aggregate particles and the uniform distribution of Fe particles in the aluminum matrix.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Wędrychowicz
A.W. Bydałek
P. Migas
ORCID: ORCID
T. Skrzekut
P. Noga
P. Madej
A. Kałasznikow
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Abstract

Thermodynamic optimizations of the ternary Fe-B-Mo system and its binary sub-system B-Mo are presented. The Fe-B-Mo description is then extended to the quaternary Fe-B-Cr-Mo system by assessing the ternary B-Cr-Mo system. The thermodynamic descriptions of the other binaries (Fe-B, Fe-Cr, Fe-Mo, B-Cr, and Cr-Mo) and the other ternaries (Fe-B-Cr and Fe-Cr-Mo) are taken from earlier studies. In this study, the adjustable parameters of the B-Mo, Fe-B-Mo, and B-Cr-Mo systems were optimized using the experimental thermodynamic and the phase equilibrium data from the literature. The solution phases of the system (liquid, bcc and fcc) are described with the substitutional solution model, and most borides are treated as stoichiometric phases or semistoichiometric phases, using a simple two-sublattice model for the latter. The system’s intermetallic phases, Chi, Mu, R, and Sigma (not dissolving boron) as well as boride M3B2, based on a formulation of (Cr,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Mo)2(B)2, are described with a three-sublattice model. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured phase equilibria in all four systems: B-Mo; ­Fe-B-Mo; B-Cr-Mo; and Fe-B-Cr-Mo.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jyrki Miettinen
Ville-Valtteri Visuri
Timo Fabritius
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Abstract

Thermodynamic descriptions of the ternary Fe-B-Cu system and its binary sub-system B-Cu aredeveloped in the context of a new Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, V, C) database. The thermodynamic parameters of the other binary sub-systems (Fe-B and Fe-Cu) are taken from earlier assessments. Experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature have been used for the optimization of the Fe-B-Cu and B-Cu systems’ thermodynamic parameters. The solution phases are described using a substitutional solution model and the compounds (two borides of the Fe-B system) are treated as stoichiometric phases. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and the experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jyrki Miettinen
Ville-Valtteri Visuri
Timo Fabritius
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Abstract

The article presents the results of research concerning the effect of anthracite dust with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% content in composites with a polypropylene matrix on selected properties. Hardness was examined with the Shore’s D method; stiffness, tensile strength as well as (MFR) Melt Flow Rate and (MVR) Melt Volume Rate of the investigated material were evaluated; wettability of the obtained material was also determined. Surface and volume resistivity were also investigated; the thermal properties of the filler were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the investigated polypropylene composites filled with anthracite dust are hydrophobic materials and the composite hardness and stiffness are growing along with the volumetric increase of anthracite. It was noted that anthracite reinforces the material to a limited extent.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Polok-Rubiniec
A. Włodarczyk-Fligier
B. Chmielnicki
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Abstract

Polymer composite materials based on the Moplen HP400R polypropylene matrix with a filler from walnut shell flour with 30, 40 and 50% content and 200-315 µm and 315-443 µm fraction were produced by the injection method. The effect of filler content was analysed on the processing properties of the composites such as: MFR Melt Flow Rate and the MVR Melt Volume-flow Rate, as well as the temperature of the filler flour decomposition using the TGA thermogravimetric analysis method. The following was also determined: density, hardness, tensile strength and stiffness modulus of elasticity of the materials in question. The obtained composite material was characterised by low density, which increased with the rising filler content. It was found that the applied natural filler has increased the hardness and stiffness modulus of the composite and decreased the tensile strength.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Włodarczyk-Fligier
M. Polok-Rubiniec
B. Chmielnicki
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Abstract

This study focused on the fatigue and corrosion fatigue of maraging steel 18Ni (250). The 18Ni (250) samples were tested for axial fatigue in air and 3.5% NaCl solution. The effects of loading frequency and stress ratio on the fatigue strength of 18Ni (250) were studied. In air, the loading frequency was 10 Hz, and the stress ratio was 0.5. However, three loading methods were used in the 3.5% NaCl solution: (i) the loading frequency of 1 Hz and stress ratio of 0.5; (ii) the loading frequency of 1 Hz and stress ratio 0.1, and (iii) the loading frequency 5 Hz and stress ratio 0.5. The corrosion fatigue strength of samples in the 3.5% NaCl solution was 63.3% lower than that of the samples in air. The fractures in the samples were observed after the test.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zhu Yongmei
Chen Junjie
Tang Wenxian
Cui Weicheng
Wang Xiaorong
Wang Fang
Yin Baoji
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Abstract

The article shows examples of simulation of the chemical composition effect on austenite transformation during continuous cooling. The calculations used own neural model of CCT (Continuous Cooling Transformation) diagrams describing austenite transformations that occur during continuous cooling. The model allows to calculate a CCT diagrams of structural steels and engineering steels based on chemical composition of steel and austenitizing temperature. Examples of simulation shown herein are related to the effect of selected elements on the temperatures of phase transformations, hardness and volume fraction of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and martensite in steel.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Trzaska
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Abstract

The purpose of the work was to determine the infuence of the bulk density ρz of granules, processing parameters and the density of ski inserts ρw made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) on their damping properties. For this aim liners for ski helmets with 3 different bulk densities were made. Sintering time and sintering pressure were also changed. The percentage damping factor η was determined on the basis of the results obtained in the rebound resilience test. Based on the analysis of the obtained data, it was found that increasing the density of EPS pads ρw increases their damping properties and at the same time contributes to a decrease in elasticity, increase in hardness and brittleness of EPS products.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Trzaskalska
R. Chwastek

Instructions for authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science. Papers with focus on synthesis, processing and properties of metal materials, including thermodynamic and physical properties, phase relations, and their relation to microstructure of materials are of particular interest.

Submissions to Archives of Metallurgy and Materials should clearly present aspects of novelty of findings, originality of approach etc. If modeling is presented it should be logically connected to experimental evidence. Submissions which just report the results without in depth analysis and discussion will not be published.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

Authors of review type manuscripts are requested to send such manuscripts to Editor-in-Chief for preliminary evaluation. Only manuscripts approved by the Editor-in-Chief can be submitted to the journal for further processing. This does not guarantee acceptance for publication since all

manuscripts are subject to regular review procedure.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000)

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word

Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.

Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.

All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.

Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation

2.1. Formulae, equations and units

Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).

Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.4. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/ or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket). Use of DOI is strongly encouraged.

Samples:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015).

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015).

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8] https://www.nist.gov/programs-projects/crystallographic-databases, accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process

All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing.

Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary.

Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 14 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days

4.3 Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

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