The paper focuses on the problem of test signal selection in determining the sound scattering coefficient in accordance with ISO 17497-1. Research shows that the use of MLS signal is preferred in this procedure. The sine sweep signal, despite its advantages, presents certain limitations if the sample is moving during measurement. An attempt has been made to develop a method that allows for minimization of error, demonstrating the dependence of the obtained values of the sound scattering coefficient on the rotational speed of the turntable and type of test signal. Conditions for the application of the sine sweep signals in continuous and discrete measurements were defined.
The axisymmetric problem of acoustic impedance of a vibrating annular piston embedded into a flat rigid baffle concentrically around a semi-infinite rigid cylindrical circular baffle has been undertaken in this study. The Helmholtz equation has been solved. The Green’s function valid for the zone considered has been used for this purpose. The influence of the semi-infinite cylindrical baffle on the piston’s acoustic impedance has been investigated. The acoustic impedance has been presented in both forms: integral and asymptotic, both valid for the steady harmonic vibrations. Additionally, the acoustic impedances of the piston with and without the cylindrical baffle have been compared to one another. In the case without the cylindrical baffle some earlier results have been used
This work is focused on the automatic recognition of environmental noise sources that affect humans’ health and quality of life, namely industrial, aircraft, railway and road traffic. However, the recognition of the latter, which have the largest influence on citizens’ daily lives, is still an open issue. Therefore, although considering all the aforementioned noise sources, this paper especially focuses on improving the recognition of road noise events by taking advantage of the perceived noise differences along the road vehicle pass-by (which may be divided into different phases: approaching, passing and receding). To that effect, a hierarchical classification scheme that considers these phases independently has been implemented. The proposed classification scheme yields an averaged classification accuracy of 92.5%, which is, in absolute terms, 3% higher than the baseline (a traditional flat classification scheme without hierarchical structure). In particular, it outperforms the baseline in the classification of light and heavy vehicles, yielding a classification accuracy 7% and 4% higher, respectively. Finally, listening tests are performed to compare the system performance with human recognition ability. The results reveal that, although an expert human listener can achieve higher recognition accuracy than the proposed system, the latter outperforms the non-trained listener in 10% in average.
The church of Santa Ana in Moratalaz, Madrid, Spain (1965-1971), is an emblematic work of the architect Miguel Fisac. In his long career include interventions in the religious field, constituting one of the most important contributions to Spanish religious architecture of the last century. This church is a singular place of worship and architecturally significant, in which the acoustics played an important role in the configuration of the spatiality of the church. This paper studies the acoustic behaviour of the church and its relationship with its unique structural, spatial and coating material characteristics. The analysis of the current acoustic conditions, with high reverberation times (up to 6 seconds) and poor intelligibility on the audience, serve as the basis for making an acoustic rehabilitation proposal that contributes to improving the sound conditions of the building for the intended use, without distorting the spatial, formal and material aspects with which the architect conceived the project.
Source/filter models have frequently been used to model sound production of the vocal apparatus and musical instruments. Beginning in 1968, in an effort to measure the transfer function (i.e., transmission response or filter characteristic) of a trombone while being played by expert musicians, sound pressure signals from the mouthpiece and the trombone bell output were recorded in an anechoic room and then subjected to harmonic spectrum analysis. Output/input ratios of the signals’ harmonic amplitudes plotted vs. harmonic frequency then became points on the trombone’s transfer function. The first such recordings were made on analog 1/4 inch stereo magnetic tape. In 2000 digital recordings of trombone mouthpiece and anechoic output signals were made that provide a more accurate measurement of the trombone filter characteristic. Results show that the filter is a high-pass type with a cutoff frequency around 1000 Hz. Whereas the characteristic below cutoff is quite stable, above cutoff it is extremely variable, depending on level. In addition, measurements made using a swept-sine-wave system in 1972 verified the high-pass behavior, but they also showed a series of resonances whose minima correspond to the harmonic frequencies which occur under performance conditions. For frequencies below cutoff the two types of measurements corresponded well, but above cutoff there was a considerable difference. The general effect is that output harmonics above cutoff are greater than would be expected from linear filter theory, and this effect becomes stronger as input pressure increases. In the 1990s and early 2000s this nonlinear effect was verified by theory and measurements which showed that nonlinear propagation takes place in the trombone, causing a wave steepening effect at high amplitudes, thus increasing the relative strengths of the upper harmonics.
In this work we present the design and the manufacturing processes, as well as the acoustics standardization tests, of an acoustic barrier formed by a set of multi-phenomena cylindrical scatterers. Periodic arrangements of acoustic scatterers embedded in a fluid medium with different physical properties are usually called Sonic Crystals. The multiple scattering of waves inside these structures leads to attenuation bands related to the periodicity of the structure by means of Bragg scattering. In order to design the acoustic barrier, two strategies have been used: First, the arrangement of scatterers is based on fractal geometries to maximize the Bragg scattering; second, multi-phenomena scatterers with several noise control mechanisms, as resonances or absorption, are designed and used to construct the periodic array. The acoustic barrier reported in this work provides a high technological solution in the field of noise control.
Two vibrating circular membranes radiate acoustic waves into the region bounded by three infinite baffles arranged perpendicularly to one another. The Neumann boundary value problem has been investigated in the case when both sources are embedded in the same baffle. The analyzed processes are time harmonic. The membranes vibrate asymmetrically. External excitations of different surface distributions and different phases have been applied to the sound sources’ surfaces. The influence of the radiated acoustic waves on the membranes’ vibrations has been included. The acoustic power of the sound sources system has been calculated by using a complete eigenfunctions system.
This paper presents a vibration analysis of a multi-link surgical micromanipulator joint, based on its detailed mathematical model. The manipulator’s prototype contains 6 links with the diameter of 8-10 [mm] and with the length of the modules of about 130 [mm]. It is driven by brushless servomotors with worm and planetary gears, for which the total transmission ratio is above 1/10000. Regarding the low efficiency of micro-robot drive systems and its vibrations, a reliable joint model and its performance is crucial for the development of a high-precision control system. To achieve the required accuracy, modelling framework has been enriched with an advanced model of friction. Simulation results are presented and discussed.
This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound absorption coefficient of auditorium seats carried out in the laboratory using two methods. In the first one, small blocks of seats in various arrangements were studied in a reverberation chamber to determine the absorption coefficient of an auditorium of infinite dimensions. The results were compared to the values of the absorption coefficient measured using the second method, which involved samples enclosed within a frame screening the side surfaces of other auditorium blocks. The results of both methods allowed for the assessment of the sound absorption coefficient of an auditorium of any dimensions while taking into account the sound absorption by the side surfaces. The method developed by the authors will simplify the currently known measurement procedures.
Noise control is essential in an enclosed machine room where the noise level has to comply with the occupational safety and health act. In order to overcome a pure tone noise with a high peak value that is harmful to human hearing, a traditional reactive muffler has been used. However, the traditional method for designing a reactive muffler has proven to be time-consuming and insufficient. In order to efficiently reduce the peak noise level, interest in shape optimization of a Helmholtz muffler is coming to the forefront.
Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a pure tone have been adequately researched. However, the shape optimization of multi-chamber Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space has been mostly ignored. Therefore, this study analyzes the sound transmission loss (STL) and the best optimized design for a hybrid Helmholtz muffler under a space- constrained situation. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler is presented. Two numerical cases for eliminating one/two tone noises emitted from a machine room using six kinds of mufflers (muffler A~F) is also introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model has been checked using the experimental data. Eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone (130 Hz) in Case I reveals that muffler C composed of a one- chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element has a noise reduction of 54.9 (dB). Moreover, as indicated in Case II, muffler F, a two-chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element, has a noise reduction of 69.7 (dB). Obviously, the peak values of the pure tones in Case I and Case II are efficiently reduced after the muffler is added.
Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones using optimally shaped hybrid Helmholtz mufflers and a simulated annealing method within a constrained space is demonstrated.
The grid method is the most widely used technique for measurement-based noise assessment, and indeed is part of the ISO 1996-2 standard. Nevertheless it has certain disadvantages. The present work is an analysis of the grid method for evaluating noise, firstly in the city of Cáceres and, secondly in two other smaller towns. Using as reference a 200 metre grid study, a study was made of the effect of varying the size and form of the grid on the city’s overall noise value, the percentage of data found to lie above some reference thresholds, and the noise value assigned to a certain zone of the city. The ISO 1996 recommendations of the necessity of new sampling points and the method’s predictive capacity for these new measurements were also analyzed.
The sound absorption property of polyurethane (PU) foams loaded with natural tea-leaf fibers and luffa cylindrica (LC) has been studied. The results show a significant improvement in the sound absorption property parallel to an increase in the amount of tea-leaf fibers (TLF). Using luffa-cylindrica as a filler material improves sound absorption properties of soft foam at all frequency ranges. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of the sample resulted in an improvement of the sound absorption property. It is pleasing to see that adding tea-leaf fibers and luffa-cylindrica to the polyurethane foam demonstrate a significant contribution to sound absorption properties of the material and it encourages using environmental friendly products as sound absorption material in further studies.
Several authors have proposed indices to synthesize the acoustics of a space, especially of concert halls. Meanwhile, a few studies have focused on the acoustics of worship spaces. The peculiarities of these last ones have shown distinctive characteristics. The increasing interest for the acoustics of worship spaces justifies the formulation of indices to synthesize the results of acoustic studies in these buildings too. This paper proposes a double synthetic index to evaluate the acoustics of a church. The index is obtained combining the average values of seven parameters generally considered in studies of architectural acoustics. The differences between requirements for music and speech in churches suggest to consider different optimal values of the selected parameters for different kinds of sound. A double synthetic index has been defined to synthesize the acoustical properties related to the music and to the speech separately. The validity of this double index is then assessed, comparing its values with subjective preferences captured through listening tests. The index, which is proposed and validated in this paper, aims to be an instrument to show synthetically the acoustical characteristics of a church to people with low knowledge in acoustics.
The present work consists of a statistical study of the monaural (lateral-reflection fractions and level) and binaural acoustic parameters (inter-aural cross-correlation coefficients) that evaluate the amount of early and late lateral acoustic energy encountered in 9 performance halls in Andalusia (southern Spain). Hall volumes range between 6,163 m3 and 34,594 m3 and all enclosures are used for presentations of symphonic concerts and other music performances. The majority of these venues are located in provincial capitals of the community and often constitute the only premises in the city where symphonic concerts can be held. The acoustic parameters under study here were derived from impulse responses analyses using a sine-sweep signals which were generated and processed by WinMLS 2004 software in the octave- band frequency centred from 125 to 4 kHz, and all parameters were spectrally averaged according to the ISO 3382-1 standard. A comparison is presented of monaural experimental results as a function of source- receiver distance with the prediction of Barron’s revised theory for concert halls, and the analyses of the acoustic parameter results are carried out in terms of their respective just noticeable differences: at the many microphone positions for the two source positions on stage, for the spatial distribution of seats in the audience zone relative to the central axis (for left- and right-hand sides) of the rooms, and for the presence of the orchestra shell on stage. Results reveal that the orchestra shell propitiates a perceptible decrement in the values of the early lateral energy fraction and an increment in the late lateral level at the audience seats. In addition, a regression study reveals that the two kinds of measures of laterality, monaural and binaural, are correlated when the hall-average data is considered, but they remain uncorrelated when all individual positions are used. Likewise, the ranges of variation of the acoustic parameters found in these halls are narrower than those specified in the ISO 3382-1. The paper concludes with a discussion on the relationships of hall-average data of the five parameters with eight geometric and acoustic variables.
The present work discusses results concerning sound perception obtained in a pitch memorization experiment for blind and visually impaired subjects (children and teenagers). Listeners were divided into two age groups: 7-13 year olds and 14-18 year olds. The study tested 20 individuals (8 congenitally blind and 12 visually impaired) and 20 sighted persons comprising reference groups. The duration of the experiments was as short as possible due to the fact that our listeners were children. To date, no study has described results of such experiment for blind/visually handicapped children and teenagers. In the pitch memory experiment blind teenagers outperformed blind children and both age groups of visually impaired subjects in two out of three tested cases. These results may have implications for the development of auditory training in orientation and mobility of young visually handicapped people.
A speaker recognition system based on joint factor analysis (JFA) is proposed to improve whispering speakers’ recognition rate under channel mismatch. The system estimated separately the eigenvoice and the eigenchannel before calculating the corresponding speaker and the channel factors. Finally, a channel-free speaker model was built to describe accurately a speaker using model compensation. The test results from the whispered speech databases obtained under eight different channels showed that the correct recognition rate of a recognition system based on JFA was higher than that of the Gaussian Mixture Model-Universal Background Model. In particular, the recognition rate in cellphone channel tests increased significantly.
Knowledge of the uncertainty of measurement of testing results is important when results have to be compared with limits and specifications. In the measurement of sound insulation following standards ISO 140-4 and 140-5 the uncertainty of the final magnitude is mainly associated to the average sound pressure levels L1 and L2 measured. However, the study of sound fields in enclosed spaces is very difficult: there are a wide variety of rooms with different sound fields depending on factors as volume, geometry and materials. A parameter what allows us to quantify the spatial variation of the sound pressure level is the standard deviation of the pressure levels measured at the different positions of the room. Based on the analysis of this parameter some results have been pointed out: we show examples on the influence of the microphone positions and the wall characteristics on the uncertainty of the final magnitudes mainly at the low frequencies regime. In this line, we propose a theoretical calculus of the standard deviation as a combined uncertainty of the standard deviation already proposed in the literature focused in the room geometry and the standard deviation associated to the wall vibrational field.
This work addresses the problem of difficulties in classical interpretation of combination tones as non- linear distortions. One of the basic problems of such an interpretation is to point out the sources of these distortions. Besides, these kinds of distortions have numerous “anomalies” which are difficult to explain on the grounds of physics or physiology. The aim of the model presented in this paper is to show that combination tones phenomenon can be explained as an effect of central mechanisms. Most of existing theories of pitch perception focus mainly on virtual pitch perception and do not take into account combination tones as an element of the same mechanism. The proposed model of central auditory processing for pitch perception allows one to interpret in a coherent way both virtual pitches and combination tones phenomena. This model is of a demonstrative nature and gives an introduction to more advanced model. It belongs to the class of spectral models and it will be shown that such a model can be in a simple way extended to spectral - time model which is partially consistent with autocorrelation models.
The main objective of this study is to develop an echocardiographic model of the left ventricular and numerical modeling of the speckles- markers tracking in the ultrasound (ultrasonographic) imaging of the left ventricle. The work is aimed at the creation of controlled and mobile environment that enables to examine the relationships between left ventricular wall deformations and visualizations of these states in the form of echocardiographic imaging and relations between the dynamically changing distributions of tissue markers of studied structures.
The reviewed book is an introductory course on engineering acoustics designed for undergraduates with basic knowledge in mathematics. It is not written clearly enough but in my opinion is it a handbook for students of electrical engineering. Some parts of the material require the knowledge of the basics of electricity and magnetism. Particularly, there are chapters about electromechanical and electroacoustical analogies and electroacoustical transducers. It is not clear whether the course is intended for students who plan to specialize in acoustics or for those for whom this will be the only contact with engineering acoustics. In the second case basic information about physiology and psychology of hearing is missing. The book is divided into 15 chapters. The Authors write that each chapter represents material for two hours of lecture. The 15th chapter does not present a material for a lecture. It contains appendices: basic information about complex notation for sinusoidal signals, power and intensity, supplementary bibliography for self-study and exercises. In my opinion the exercises have various levels of difficulty and should be solved under the direction of a teacher. They are a very important part of the entire course.
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