Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics

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Archives of Thermodynamics | 2015 | No 2 June |

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Abstract

The paper presents numerical simulation of two-phase flow in a heated capillary with evaporation on the meniscus. To solve the problem, a model of evaporation from meniscus was developed in which the dynamics of liquid-vapour interface is described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. The numerical simulations were performed using commercial software for 2D axially symmetric case. The flow evolution was analysed for different values of heat transfer coefficient at the capillary wall and inlet liquid mass flow rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Karwacki
Marcin Lackowski
Helena Nowakowska
Dariusz Butrymowicz
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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of relations describing entropy generation in a condenser of a steam unit. Connections between entropy generation, condenser ratio, and heat exchanger effectiveness, as well as relations implied by them are shown. Theoretical considerations allowed to determine limits of individual parameters which describe the condenser operation. Various relations for average temperature of the cold fluid were compared. All the proposed relations were verified against data obtained using a simulator and actual measurement data from a 200 MW unit condenser. Based on data from a simulator it was examined how the sum of entropy rates, steam condenser effectiveness, terminal temperature difference and condenser ratio vary with the change in the inlet cooling water temperature, mass flow rate of steam and the cooling water mass flow rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Laskowski
Maciej Jaworski
Adam Smyk
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Abstract

This paper presents results of investigations on the application of CuO-water nanofluids for intensification of convective heat transfer. Performance of nanofluids with 2.2 and 4.0 vol.% CuO NPs (nanoparticles) content were examined with regard to heat transfer coefficient and pressure losses in case of turbulent flow in a tube. Negligible impact of examined nanofluid on heat transfer improvement was found. Moreover, measured pressure losses significantly exceeded those determined for primary base liquid. The observations showed that application of nanofluid for heat transfer intensification with a relatively high solid load in the examined flow range is rather controversial.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Dzido
Michał Drzazga
Marcin Lemanowicz
Andrzej T. Gierczycki
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Abstract

Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.
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Authors and Affiliations

Damian Joachimiak
Piotr Krzyślak
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Abstract

In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130°C as maximum) for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a) were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yan-Na Liu
Song Xiao
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Abstract

The paper presents a literature review on the topic of vapour power plants working according to the two-phase thermodynamic cycle with supercritical parameters. The main attention was focused on a review of articles and papers on the vapour power plants working using organic circulation fluids powered with low- and medium-temperature heat sources. Power plants with water-steam cycle supplied with a high-temperature sources have also been shown, however, it has been done mainly to show fundamental differences in the efficiency of the power plant and applications of organic and water-steam cycles. Based on a review of available literature references a comparative analysis of the parameters generated by power plants was conducted, depending on the working fluid used, the type and parameters of the heat source, with particular attention to the needs of power plant internal load.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Mocarski
Aleksandra Borsukiewicz-Gozdur

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