Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

Content

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2022 | 70 | No. 2 |

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Abstract

The classical Cayley–Hamilton theorem is extended to fractional different order linear systems. The new theorems are applied to different orders fractional linear electrical circuits. The applications of new theorems are illustrated by numerical examples.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Kaczorek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, ul. Wiejska 45D, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
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Abstract

In recent years there has been an increasing demand for electric vehicles due to their attractive features including low pollution and increase in efficiency. Electric vehicles use electric motors as primary motion elements and permanent magnet machines found a proven record of use in electric vehicles. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) as electric propulsion in electric vehicles supersedes the performance compared to other motor types. However, in order to eliminate the cumbersome mechanical sensors used for feedback, sensorless control of motors has been proposed. This paper proposes the design of sliding mode observer (SMO) based on Lyapunov stability for sensorless control of PMSM. The designed observer is modeled with a simulated PMSM model to evaluate the tracking efficiency of the observer. Further, the SMO is coded using MATLAB/Xilinx block models to investigate the performance at real-time.
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Authors and Affiliations

Soundirarajan Navaneethan
1
Srinivasan Kanthalakshmi
2
S. Aandrew Baggio
1

  1. Department of Instrumentation and Control Systems Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641004, Tamilnadu, India
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641004, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract

This article presents the information concerning aspects of the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mission planning process, emphasizing maritime security monitoring and surveillance, and using side-looking sonars as a primary data source. The paper describes characteristic mission plan phases and gives suggestions for the operators, mainly concerning the safety and effectiveness of the AUV mission. The article describes the coverage path planning algorithm, which could be used to create an effective AUV mission plan, considering AUV manoeuvrability, sonar characteristics, and environmental factors. The results of the algorithms have been verified during the real mission of the AUV vehicle.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Wawrzyński
1
Mariusz Zieja
2
Mariusz Żokowski
3
Norbert Sigiel
4

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Plac Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warszawa, Poland
  2. Air Force Institute of Technology, ul. Księcia Bolesława 6, 01-494 Warszawa, Poland
  3. Armament Agency, ul. Królewska 1/7, 00-909 Warszawa, Poland
  4. 13.MCM Squadron, ul. Smidowicza 48, 81-106 Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

A low–cost measurement system using filtering of measurements for two–wheeled balancing robot stabilisation purposes has been addressed in this paper. In particular, a measurement system based on gyroscope, accelerometer, and encoder has been considered. The measurements have been corrected for deterministic disturbances and then filtered with Kalman, a–b type, and complementary filters. A quantitative assessment of selected filters has been given. As a result, the complete structure of a measurement system has been obtained. The performance of the proposed measurement system has been validated experimentally by using a dedicated research rig.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Laddach
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Łangowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Zubowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdańsk University of Technology, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

The implementations of matrix multiplication on contemporary, vector-oriented, and multicore-oriented computer hardware are very carefully designed and optimized with respect to their efficiency, due to the essential significance of that operation in other science and engineering domains. Consequently, the available implementations are very fast and it is a natural desire to take advantage of the efficiency of those implementations in other problems, both matrix and nonmatrix. Such an approach is often called a black box matrix computation paradigm in the literature on the subject. In this article, we gathered a broad series of algorithms taking advantage of the efficiency of fast matrix multiplication algorithms in other mathematical and computer science operations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Respondek
1

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Design and operation of a compiler and virtual machine, being the essential components of a multiplatform control programming environment, are presented. The compiler translates source programs written in Structured Text language of the IEC 61131-3 standard into executable code in a dedicated intermediate language. The virtual machine, i.e. a specially designed processor implemented in software, is a runtime part of the environment executing the code in real time. Due to memory-to-memory operation principle the machine is able to process various data types defined in the standard. The focus is given on overloading and extensibility of the functions, as well as on uniform invocations of Program Organization Units. By selection of addressing mode, the environment can be deployed on multiple hardware platforms, beginning from 8-bit microcontrollers up to 32/64-bit industrial PCs. Industrial applications are indicated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Sadolewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartosz Trybus
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
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Abstract

HVAC systems use a substantial part of the whole energy usage of buildings. The optimizing of their operation can greatly affect the power use of a building, making them an interesting subject when trying to save energy. However, this should not affect the comfort of the people inside. Many approaches aim to optimize the operation of the heating and cooling system; in this paper, we present an approach to steer the heat pumps to reduce energy usage while aiming to maintain a certain level of comfort. For this purpose, we employ a market-based distributed method for power-balancing. To maintain the comfort level, the market-based distributed system assigns each device a cost-curve, parametrized with the current temperature of the room. This allows the cost to reflect the urgency of the HVAC operation. This approach was tested in a real-world environment: we use 10 heat pumps responsible for temperature control in 10 comparable-sized rooms. The test was performed for 3 months in summer. We limited the total peak power, and the algorithm balanced the consumption of the heat pumps with the available supply. The experiments showed that the system successfully managed to operate within the limit (lowering peak usage), and - to a certain point - reduce the cost without significantly deteriorating the working conditions of the occupants of the rooms. This test allowed us to estimate the minimal peak power requirement for the tested set-up that will still keep the room temperatures in or close to comfortable levels. The experiments show that a fully distributed market-based approach with parametrized cost functions can be used to limit peak usage while maintaining temperatures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Weronika Radziszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin A. Bugaj
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mirosław Łuniewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Gerwin Hoogsteen
3
ORCID: ORCID
Patryk Chaja
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sebastian Bykuć
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Science, ul. Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 21/25, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematica and Computer Science,University of Twente, PO BOX 217, 7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands
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Abstract

Manipulators mounted on small satellites will be used to perform on-orbit servicing, removal of space debris, and assembly of large orbital structures. During such operations, the manipulator must avoid collisions with the target object or the elements of the assembled structure. Planning of the manipulator trajectory is one of the major challenges for the proposed missions because the motion of the manipulator influences the position and orientation of the satellite. Thus, the dynamic equations of motion must be used during trajectory planning. Methods developed for fixed-base manipulators working on Earth cannot be directly applied. In this paper, we propose a new obstacle vector field (OVF) method for collision-free trajectory planning of a manipulator mounted on a free-floating satellite. The OVF method is based on a vector field that surrounds the obstacles and generates virtual forces that drive the manipulator around the obstacles. The OVF method is compared with the classical artificial potential field (APF) method and the rapidly exploring random trees (RRT) method. In the presented examples the trajectory planning problem is solved for a planar case in which the satellite is equipped with a 2 DoF manipulator. It is shown that the OVF method is more efficient than the APF method, i.e., it allows us to solve the trajectory planning problem in some of the cases, in which the APF method is unsuccessful. The time required to find the solution with the use of the OVF method is shorter than the time needed by the APF and the RRT method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Rybus
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Centrum Badań Kosmicznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk (CBK PAN), ul. Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The conventional port distribution power system is being disrupted by increasing distributed generation (DG) levels based on integrated energy. Different new energy resources combine with conventional generation and energy storage to improve the reliability of the systems. Reliability assessment is one of the key indicators to measure the impact of the distributed generation units based on integrated energy. In this work, an analytical method to investigate the impacts of using solar, wind, energy storage system (ESS), combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system and commercial power on the reliability of the port distribution power system is improved, where the stochastic characteristics models of the major components of the new energy DG resources are based on Markov chain for assessment. The improved method is implemented on the IEEE 34 Node Test Feeder distribution power system to establish that new energy resources can be utilized to improve the reliability of the power system. The results obtained from the case studies have demonstrated efficient and robust performance. Moreover, the impacts of integrating DG units into the conventional port power system at proper locations and with appropriate capacities are analyzed in detail.
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Authors and Affiliations

Liang Fang
1
Xiao-Yan Xu
1
Jun Xia
2
Tomasz Tarasiuk
3

  1. Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 201305, China
  2. Marine Design and Research Institute of China, Shanghai, 201305, China
  3. Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 81/87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
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Abstract

Nowadays, there is a need to increase the continuous usage of the power electronic converters like AC-DC, DC-DC, and DC-AC based on various applications like mobile charge controller and telecom base station. Also, for power stability control, these converters are utilized in the renewable energy system (RES). The output cannot be stable for a longer duration due to the inappropriate switching pulse and continued usage of the converter. For resolving the above issues, the soft-switching technique is implemented in the proposed system for controlling both converter and inverter for proper energy stabilization during the continuous operation of devices. The main objective of this work is to improve the solar power system using high voltage gain DC / DC converter. Similarly, an inverter delivers the continuous AC power to the grid system without any fluctuations. The revolutionary substantial transformative control (RSTC) technique has been employed to monitor and control the converters used in this system. The additional advantage of this system is battery-based energy management, which is only utilized under necessary conditions. During the initial stage, RSTC will track the solar power, and it compares with the reference voltage and produces the appropriate pulse to the converter switch. Based on the switching pulse, the full-bridge converter (FBC) will also enhance the DC voltage by providing the constant voltage for the grid-connected inverter system. Secondly, the proposed RSTC controller will be monitoring voltage amplitude and frequency of grid power system. If any variation appears due to source power fluctuation, the controller will recognize it and automatically vary the pulse width modulation (PWM) of an inverter and compensate the grid power. The design analysis and operating approaches of the proposed converter are verified by MATLAB / Simulink 2017b. The performance analysis has been done with various parameters like total harmonics distortion (THD), steady-state error and converter efficiency.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Umamaheswari
1
R. Karthigaivel
1
G. Satheesh Kumar
2
N. Vengadachalam
3

  1. PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Kothandaraman nagar, Dindigul – 624622 Tamil Nadu, India
  2. SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-Palani Highway, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu - 624002 India
  3. Malla Reddy Engineering College for Women, Maisammaguda, Dhulapally, Secunderabad-500100 Telangana, India
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Abstract

The goal of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) is to select the most appropriate of the alternatives by evaluating many conflicting criteria together. MCDM methods are widely available in the literature and have been used in various energy problems. The key problems studied in electrical power systems in recent years have included voltage instability and voltage collapse. Different flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS) equipment has been used for this purpose for decades, increasing voltage stability while enhancing system efficiency, reliability and quality of supply, and offering environmental benefits. Finding the best locations for these devices in terms of voltage stability in actual electrical networks poses a serious problem. Many criteria should be considered when determining the most suitable location for the controller. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of MCDM techniques to be used for optimal location of a static VAR compensator (SVC) device in terms of voltage stability. The ideal location can be determined by means of sorting according to priority criteria. The proposed approach was carried out using the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) in MATLAB in the IEEE 14-bus test system. Using ten different MCDM methods, the most appropriate locations were compared among themselves and a single ranking list was obtained, integrated with the Borda count method, which is a data fusion technique. The application results showed that the methods used are consistent among themselves. It was revealed that the integrated model was an appropriate method that could be used for optimal location selection, providing reliable and satisfactory results to power system planners.
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Authors and Affiliations

Faruk Aydin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bilal Gümüş
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Marmara University, İstanbul 34722, Turkey
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21680, Turkey
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Abstract

The popularity of high-efficiency permanent magnet synchronous motors in drive systems has continued to grow in recent years. Therefore, also the detection of their faults is becoming a very important issue. The most common fault of this type of motor is the stator winding fault. Due to the destructive character of this failure, it is necessary to use fault diagnostic methods that facilitate damage detection in its early stages. This paper presents the effectiveness of spectral and bispectrum analysis application for the detection of stator winding faults in permanent magnet synchronous motors. The analyzed diagnostic signals are stator phase current, stator phase current envelope, and stator phase current space vector module. The proposed solution is experimentally verified during various motor operating conditions. The object of the experimental verification was a 2.5 kW permanent magnet synchronous motor, the construction of which was specially prepared to facilitate inter-turn short circuits modelling. The application of bispectrum analysis discussed so far in the literature has been limited to vibration signals and detecting mechanical damages. There are no papers in the field of motor diagnostic dealing with the bispectrum analysis for stator winding fault detection, especially based on stator phase current signal.
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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Pietrzak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Wolkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Machines, Drives and Measurements, Wybrzeze Wyspia ˙ nskiego 27, ´ 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

High voltage DC insulation plays an important role, especially in power transmission systems (HVDC) but also increasingly on medium voltage levels (MVDC). The space charge behavior under DC voltage has great importance on electrical insulation reliability. This paper reports investigations of encapsulated space charge in homo-multilayer dielectric materials using the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method. The charge has been introduced on the homo-layer interface by corona sprinkling prior to encapsulation. Two doses of charge density were accumulated on the dielectric surface in two types of dielectric materials Kapton and LDPE. The polarization DC voltage was applied in 2 min intervals in steps corresponding to an effective electric field strength in a range of 8-40 kV/mm for Kapton and 10-50 kV/mm for LDPE. The PEA-based detected space charge was compared at the initial, reference stage, prior to charge accumulation, and after corona sprinkling of defined charge density. The evaluation was based on the PEA time-dependent charge distributions and charge profiles referring to the DC polarization field strength. The goal of the experiment was to identify the relationship and the character of the known sprinkled and encapsulated charge inside homo-layered materials using the PEA method. According to the observations, the ratio between sprinkled charge densities is proportional to the encapsulated, charge densities measured by the PEA method on the interfacial homo-layer for the Kapton specimen. In the case of LDPE, a fast decrease of interfacial charge was observed, especially at a higher polarization field above 10 kV/mm. The encapsulation of the known charge amount can be extended to different types of multilayer material. The presented methodology might be used also for extended calibration of the PEA measurement system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Florkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Kuniewski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Power Engineering, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

High-speed switching capabilities of SiC MOSFET power modules allow building high power converters working with elevated switching frequencies offering high efficiencies and high power densities. As the switching processes get increasingly rapid, the parasitic capacitances and inductances appearing in SiC MOSFET power modules affect switching transients more and more significantly. Even relatively small parasitic capacitances can cause a significant capacitive current flow through the SiC MOSFET power module. As the capacitive current component in the drain current during the turn-off process is significant, a commonly used method of determining the switching power losses based on the product of instantaneous values of drain-source voltage and drain current may lead to a severe error. Another problem is that charged parasitic capacitances discharge through the MOSFET resistive channel during the turn-on process. As this happens in the internal structure, that current is not visible on the MOSFET terminals. Fast switching processes are challenging to measure accurately due to the imperfections of measurement probes, like their output signals delay mismatch. This paper describes various problems connected with the correct determination of switching power losses in high-speed SiC MOSFET power modules and proposes solutions to these problems. A method of achieving a correct time alignment of waveforms collected by voltage and current probes has been shown and verified experimentally. In order to estimate SiC MOSFET channel current during the fast turn-off process, a method based on the estimation of nonlinear parasitic capacitances current has also been proposed and verified experimentally
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Authors and Affiliations

Dawid Zięba
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Rąbkowski
2

  1. Medcom Company, Jutrzenki 78A, 02-230 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Technology, Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Aiming at the problems of low accuracy, low efficiency and low stability of traditional methods and recent developments in advanced technology incite the industries to be in sync with modern technology. With respect to various available techniques, this paper designs a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of the manufacturing industry for transferring risk based on economic big-data analytics. The big-data analysis method is utilized to obtain the data source of fuzzy evaluation of the manufacturing industry to transfer risk using data as the basis of risk evaluation. Based on the risk factors, the proposed model establishes the risk index system of the manufacturing industry and uses the expert evaluation method to design the scoring method of the evaluation index system. To ensure the accuracy of the evaluation results, the manufacturing industry's fuzzy comprehensive model is established using the entropy weight method, and the expert evaluation results are modified accordingly. The experimental results show that the highest efficiency of the proposed method is 96%, the highest accuracy of the evaluation result is 75%. The evaluation result's stability is higher than the other existing methods, which fully verifies the effectiveness and can provide a reliable theoretical basis for enterprise risk evaluation research.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tong Sun
1
Chunzhi Liu
2

  1. Department of Economics, Shenyang Institute of Science and Technology, Shenyang, 110167, China
  2. College of International Business, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, 110034, China
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Abstract

Information fusion approaches have been commonly used in multi sensor environments for the fusion and grouping of data from various sensors which is used further to draw a meaningful interpretation of the data. Traditional information fusion methods have limitations such as high time complexity of fusion processes and poor recall rate. In this work, a new multi-channel nano sensor information fusion method based on a neural network has been designed. By analyzing the principles of information fusion methods, the back propagation based neural network (BP-NN) is devised in this work. Based on the design of the relevant algorithm flow, information is collected, processed, and normalized. Then the algorithm is trained, and output is generated to achieve the fusion of information based on multi-channel nano sensor. Moreover, an error function is utilized to reduce the fusion error. The results of the present study show that compared with the conventional methods, the proposed method has quicker fusion (integration of relevant data) and has a higher recall rate. The results indicate that this method has higher efficiency and reliability. The proposed method can be applied in many applications to integrate the data for further analysis and interpretations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chaoke Li
1

  1. School of Intelligent Medical Engineering, Sanquan College of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China
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Abstract

The number of scanner stations used to acquire point cloud data is limited, resulting in poor data registration. As a result, a cloud point block registration approach was proposed that took into account the distance between the point and the surface. When registering point cloud data, the invariant angle, length, and area of the two groups of point cloud data were affine transformed, and then the block registration parameters of point cloud data were determined. A finite hybrid model of point cloud data was created based on the coplane four-point nonuniqueness during the affine translation. On this basis, the point cloud data block registration algorithm was designed. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has great advantages in texture alignment, registration accuracy and registration time, so it is able to effectively improve the registration effect of point cloud data. The point cloud data block registration algorithm was built on this foundation. Experiments show that the suggested method has significant improvements in texture alignment, registration accuracy, and registration time, indicating that it can significantly improve point cloud data registration.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yinju Lu
1 2
Mingyi Duan
2
Shuguang Dai
1

  1. School of Optical Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
  2. School of Information Engineering, Zhengzhou Institute of Technology, Zhengzhou 450044, China
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Abstract

Turmeric is affected by various diseases during its growth process. Not finding its diseases at early stages may lead to a loss in production and even crop failure. The most important thing is to accurately identify diseases of the turmeric plant. Instead of using multiple steps such as image pre-processing, feature extraction, and feature classification in the conventional method, the single-phase detection model is adopted to simplify recognizing turmeric plant leaf diseases. To enhance the detection accuracy of turmeric diseases, a deep learning-based technique called the Improved YOLOV3-Tiny model is proposed. To improve detection accuracy than YOLOV3-tiny, this method uses residual network structure based on the convolutional neural network in particular layers. The results show that the detection accuracy is improved in the proposed model compared to the YOLOV3-Tiny model. It enables anyone to perform fast and accurate turmeric leaf diseases detection. In this paper, major turmeric diseases like leaf spot, leaf blotch, and rhizome rot are identified using the Improved YOLOV3-Tiny algorithm. Training and testing images are captured during both day and night and compared with various YOLO methods and Faster R-CNN with the VGG16 model. Moreover, the experimental results show that the Cycle-GAN augmentation process on turmeric leaf dataset supports much for improving detection accuracy for smaller datasets and the proposed model has an advantage of high detection accuracy and fast recognition speed compared with existing traditional models.
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Authors and Affiliations

V. Devisurya
1
R. Devi Priya
1
N. Anitha
1

  1. Department of Information Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, India
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Abstract

An active inerter-based suspension with acceleration feedback control is proposed in this paper, the time delay generated in the controllers and actuators is considered, which constitutes the time-delayed active inerter-based (TDA-IB) suspension. The dynamic equation of the TDA-IB suspension is established and is a neutral type of delay differential equation (NDDE) in which the time delay exists in the highest-order derivative. The stability analysis is conducted by calculating the number of unstable characteristic roots based on the definite integral stability method, the stable and unstable regions are determined. The effect of time delay and feedback gain on the dynamic performance of the TDA-IB suspension under harmonic, random, and shock excitations is studied in detail and compared with the parallel-connected inerter-based (PC-IB) and traditional suspensions. The results show that the TDA-IB suspension is asymptotically stable for smaller feedback gain and time delay, through increasing the feedback gain, the stable regions shrink, and a smaller time delay could cause the system to become unstable. Furthermore, the time delay could regulate the resonance peak around the unsprung mass natural frequency and generate multiple high-frequency resonance peaks. If the time delay is chosen appropriately and falls into the stable range, the TDA-IB suspension could improve the dynamic performance for the suspension stroke and dynamic tire load while having a deterioration for the vehicle body acceleration compared with the PC-IB and traditional suspensions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yong Wang
1 2 3
Xian-Yu Jin
1
Yun-Shun Zhang
1
Hu Ding
4
Li-Qun Chen
4

  1. Automotive Engineering Research Institute, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
  2. Vehicle Measurement, Control and Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
  3. Provincial Engineering Research Center for New Energy Vehicle Intelligent Control and Simulation Test Technology of Sichuan, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
  4. School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
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Abstract

The overall efficiency of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) strongly depends on the temperature uniformity of the batteries, usually disregarded in studies of the integrated performance of BESSs. This paper presents a new battery thermal management system (BTMS) using a personalized air supply instead of a central air supply. Thermal models are established to predict the thermal behavior of BESSs with 400 battery packs. Moreover, several optimizations comprising the effect of the position and number of air inlets, the number, and angle of the baffles on the air distribution in the ducts are proposed. The results show that the distributed air supply from the main air inlet makes the air velocity in the main air ducts more uniform. It is demonstrated that air deflection is the main source of airflow inhomogeneity at the air outlets. The airflow uniformity is better when the baffles are added at the entrance and the bottom of each riser duct than at other locations. The improved air supply scheme makes the nonuniformity coefficient of air velocity reduced from 1.358 to 0.257. The findings can guide the selection of a cooling form to enhance the safety of BESSs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhu Xinlong
1
Shi Hong
1
Xu Wenbing
1
Pan Jiashuang
1
Zhang Tong
2
Wang Yansong
2

  1. College of Energy & Power Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Mengxi, Jingkou, Zhenjiang 212003, China
  2. Key Laboratory of Aircraft environment control and life support, MIIT, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016, China
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Abstract

In the era of smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0, the rapid development of modelling in production processes results in the implementation of new techniques, such as additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. However, large invest-ments in the devices in the field of AM technologies require prior analysis to identify the possibilities of improving the production process flow. This paper proposes a new approach to determine and optimize the production process flow with improvements made by the AM technologies through the application of the Petri net theory. The existing produc-tion process is specified by a Petri net model and optimized by AM technology. The modified version of the system is verified and validated by the set of analytic methods safeguarding against the formal errors, deadlocks, or unreachable states. The proposed idea is illustrated by an example of a real-life production process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Remigiusz Wiśniewski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Topczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Wojnakowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
  2. Institute of Control & Computation Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 2, 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
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Abstract

Quick development of computer techniques and increasing computational power allow for building high-fidelity models of various complex objects and processes using historical data. One of the processes of this kind is an air traffic, and there is a growing need for traffic mathematical models as air traffic is increasing and becoming more complex to manage. This study concerned the modelling of a part of the arrival process. The first part of the research was air separation modelling by using continuous probability distributions. Fisher Information Matrix was used for the best fit selection. The second part of the research consisted of applying regression models that best match the parameters of representative distributions. Over a dozen airports were analyzed in the study and that allowed to build a generalized model for aircraft air separation in function of traffic intensity. Results showed that building a generalized model which comprises traffic from various airports is possible. Moreover, aircraft air separation can be expressed by easy to use mathematical functions. Models of this kind can be used for various applications, e.g.: air separation management between aircraft, airports arrival capacity management, and higher-level air traffic simulation or optimization tasks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adrian Pawełek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Lichota
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper, we describe the development and design procedure of the new kind of coaxial TEm,1 modes generator based on ring resonator with coupling apertures. The generator enables excitation of subsequent TEm,1 modes in a cylindrical waveguide. The proposed design method allows to obtain high purity TEm,1 modes. The angular mode number can be chosen by replacing the plate with coupling apertures. Structure and parameters of the generator was optimized using CST-Microwave Studio. The mode generator was fabricated and checked on the test bench in an anechoic chamber. The measured field distributions confirm excitation of the desired TEm,1 modes. A good agreement between simulations and measurements is obtained. The presented mode generator, operating in non-rotating TEm,1 modes, is easy to fabricate, and suitable for cold-test experiments of high power components and devices.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Jaworski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Andrzej Francik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kacper Nowak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
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Abstract

The review includes results of analyses and research aimed at standardizing the concepts and measurement procedures associated with photodetector parameters. Photodetectors are key components that ensure the conversion of incoming optical radiation into an electrical signal in a wide variety of sophisticated optoelectronic systems and everyday devices, such as smartwatches and systems that measure the composition of the Martian atmosphere. Semiconductor detectors are presented, and they play a major role due to their excellent optical and electrical parameters as well as physical parameters, stability, and long mean time to failure. As their performance depends on the manufacturing technology and internal architecture, different types of photodetectors are described first. The following parts of the article concern metrological aspects related to their characterization. All the basic parameters have been defined, which are useful both for their users and their developers. This allows for the verification of photodetectors’ workmanship quality, the capabilities of a given technology, and, above all, suitability for a specific application and the performance of the final optoelectronic system. Experimentally validated meteorological models and equivalent diagrams, which are necessary for the correct analysis of parameter measurements, are also presented. The current state of knowledge presented in recognized scientific papers and the results of the authors’ works are described as well.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Bielecki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Achtenberg
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Kopytko
2
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Mikołajczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Wojtas
1
ORCID: ORCID
Antoni Rogalski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In order to achieve higher frequency measurement accuracy, this paper proposed a characteristic pulse detection method of fuzzy area based on the quantized phase processing method of different frequency groups. First, the fuzzy area of the group phase coincidence points continuously moved on the time axis after passing through delay elements. The moving distance, that is, the number of the delay elements was determined by the main clock cycle of the D flip-flop. After that, three groups of phase coincidence detection fuzzy areas in different positions were sent to the digital logic module to extract the edge pulses of the phase coincidence detection fuzzy area. The pulse width is determined by the difference between the clock cycles of the delay elements. The clock cycles of different delay units were adjusted to obtain nanosecond or even picosecond circuit detection resolution. Finally, the pulses generated at the edge of the phase coincidence fuzzy area are taken as the switching signal of the frequency signal counter, so the stability of the gate signal and the accuracy of the gate time measurement are improved. The experimental results show that frequency stability can reach the order of E-13/s. In addition, compared with the traditional measurement method, it is characterized by simple structure, low cost, low noises, and high measurement resolution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xin Geng
1
Baoqiang Du
2

  1. School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450000, China
  2. College of Information and Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
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Abstract

The protection and use of historic buildings is a difficult and costly task. Most often, these objects are under conservatory protection and any interference in their structure requires appropriate consent. On the other hand, conducting construction works on historic buildings carries a high risk of their damage or even destruction. Therefore, proper prior diagnostics is an extremely important factor affecting the scope and manner of works to be conducted. The paper presents the use of 3D scanning to determine the deflection of the ceiling under the Column Hall of the historic Palace, the floor of which showed elasticity, recorded during changing service loads. After identifying the places with the greatest deflections, based on data from 3D laser scanning, test holes were made and wood samples from the ceiling were taken to perform moisture content and mycological tests. An endoscopic inspection camera was inserted into test holes, providing the basis for recognizing the structure of the ceiling, i.e. arrangement of layers as well as dimensions and spacing of ceiling beams. Strength calculations were made with the limit state method resulted in the determination of the maximum permissible service load on the ceiling. The presented course of action in diagnostics of the analysed historic building may be an example of a preliminary procedure to be taken before deciding on changes in the manner of use of historic buildings or the functionalities of their individual parts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Szymczak-Graczyk
1
Zbigniew Walczak
1
Barbara Ksit
2
Zdzisław Szyguła
3

  1. Department of Construction and Geoengineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
  2. Institute of Building Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
  3. Company owner, Poland

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