Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers is a peer-reviewed research journal published in English. The journal has been coming out quarterly as Chemical and Process Engineering since 1980. Starting in 2023 the journal has changed and narrowed its scope focusing on new frontiers of chemical engineering that are key in addressing fundamental challenges in the coming decades.
Accordingly, the journal encourages the researchers from academia and industry to submit their original papers on chemical and process engineering research in the following areas:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)
Papers concerning other important current trends in chemical engineering, e.g. digitalization and soft computing are also welcome.
The publishable materials include experimental and theoretical research papers, short communications, critical reviews and perspective articles. Occasionally, Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes thematic Special Issues, as well as conference proceedings that fall within its scope.
We particularly encourage young and aspiring scientists to submit their mauscripts to the journal. To facilitate them, we offer fast publishing of early-stage research works (e.g. conference posters, short communications) via a special quick peer-review track.
Editor-in-Chief Andrzej I. Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands 0000-0002-8227-9660
Andrzej Stankiewicz is Emeritus Professor at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, and former Director of the TU Delft Process Technology Institute. With 45 years of industrial and academic experience he is author of numerous scientific publications on process intensification, chemical reaction engineering and industrial catalysis. Professor Stankiewicz is Series Editor of the Green Chemistry Book Series (Royal Society of Chemistry) and former Managing Editor of Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification (Elsevier).
The research interests of Andrzej Stankiewicz focus on intensification of chemical processes using electricity-based energy transfer mechanisms. The research in that field brought him, among other things, the prestigious ERC Advanced Investigator Grant. Prof. Stankiewicz is currently affiliated at Warsaw University of Technology where he continues his research on green fuels production and on novel energy storage systems using renewable electricity as primary energy source.
Incomplete oxygen reduction gives rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). For a long time they have been considered unwelcome companions of aerobic metabolism. Organisms using oxygen developed several systems of ROS scavenging with enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants, which allow them control the cellular level of oxygen derived from free radicals. It is well established nowadays that ROS are not necessarily negative byproducts, but they also play an important role in cellular mechanisms. They are involved in many regular cellular processes in all aerobic organisms. When the antioxidant system is overcome and the balance between ROS production and scavenging is disrupted, oxidative stress occurs. It has been reported that oxidative stress may be linked to some human diseases and is also involved in biotic and abiotic stress response in plants.
Kinetic resolution of (R)- and (S)-mandelic acid by its transesterification with vinyl acetate catalysed by Burholderia cepacia lipase has been studied. The influence of the initial substrate concentration on the kinetics of process has been investigated. A modified ping-pong bi-bi model of enzymatic transesterification of (S)-mandelic acid including substrate inhibition has been developed. The values of kinetic parameters of the model have been estimated. We have shown that the inhibition effect revealed over a certain threshold limit value of the initial concentration of substrate.
Measurements of the absorption rate of carbon dioxide into aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanoloamine (MDEA) and 2-ethylaminoethanol (EAE) have been carried out. On this basis a mathematical model of the performance of an absorption column operated with aqueous solution of a blend of the above amines at elevated temperatures and pressures have been proposed. The results of simulations obtained by means of this model are described. The work is a part of a wider program, aimed at the development of a new process.
A method of manufacturing hydrogel coatings designed to increase the hydrophilicity of polyurethanes (PU) is presented. Coatings were obtained from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by free radical polymerisation. The authors proposed a mechanism of a two-step grafting - crosslinking process and investigated the influence of reagent concentration on the coating’s physical properties - hydrogel ratio (HG) and equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR). A surface analysis of freeze-dried coatings using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a highly porous structure. The presented technology can be used to produce biocompatible surfaces with limited protein and cell adhesive properties and can be applied in fabrication of number of biomedical devices, e.g. catheters, vascular grafts and heart prosthesis.
The knowledge about membrane contactors is growing rapidly but is still insufficient for a reliable designing. This paper presents a new type of membrane contactors that are integrated with one of the following ways of separation by using absorbents, micelles, flocculants, functionalized polymers, molecular imprints, or other methods that are based on aggregation. The article discusses methods for designing multi-stage cascade, usually counter-current. At every stage of this cascade, relevant aggregates are retained by the membrane, while the permeate passes freely through membrane. The process takes place in the membrane boundary layer with a local cross-flow of the permeate and the retentate. So the whole system can be called a cross-counter-current. The process kinetics, k, must be coordinated with the permeate flux, J, and the rate of surface renewal of the sorbent on the membrane surface, s. This can be done by using ordinary back-flushing or relevant hydrodynamic method of sweeping, such as: turbulences, shear stresses or lifting forces. A surface renewal model has been applied to adjust the optimal process conditions to sorbent kinetics. The experimental results confirmed the correctness of the model and its suitability for design of the new type of contactors.
Substitution of fossil fuels with alternative energy carriers has become necessary due to climate change and fossil fuel shortages. Fermentation as a way of producing biohydrogen, an attractive and environmentally friendly future energy carrier, has captured received increasing attention in recent years because of its high H2 production rate and a variety of readily available waste substrates used in the process. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of fermentative biohydrogen production, factors affecting this process, as well as various bioreactor configurations and performance parameters, including H2 yield and H2 production rate.
The aim of this study was to determine the solubility of CO2 in perfluorodecalin (PFD) which is frequently used as efficient liquid carrier of respiratory gases in bioprocess engineering. The application of perfluorinated liquid in a microsystem has been presented. Gas-liquid mass transfer during Taylor (slug) flow in a microchannel of circular cross section 0.4 mm in diameter has been investigated. A physicochemical system of the absorption of CO2 from the CO2/N2 mixture in perfluorodecalin has been applied. The Henry’s law constants have been found according to two theoretical approaches: physical (H = 1.22·10-3 mol/m3Pa) or chemical (H = 1.26·10-3 mol/m3Pa) absorption. We are hypothesising that the gas-liquid microchannel system is applicable to determine the solubility of respiratory gases in perfluorinated liquids.
This article presents a critical mini-review of research conducted on bioelectrochemical reactors with emphasis placed on microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells (MEC). The principle of operation and typical constructions of MFCs and MECs were presented. The types of anodes and cathodes, ion-selective membranes and microorganisms used were discussed along with their limitations.
Extracellular laccase produced by the wood-rotting fungus Cerrena unicolor was immobilised covalently on the mesostructured siliceous foam (MCF) and three hexagonally ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) with different pore sizes. The enzyme was attached covalently via glutaraldehyde (GLA) or by simple adsorption and additionally crosslinked with GLA. The experiments indicated that laccase bound by covalent attachment remains very active and stable. The best biocatalysts were MCF and SBA-15 with Si-F moieties on their surface. Thermal inactivation of immobilised and native laccase at 80°C showed a biphasic-type activity decay, that could be modelled with 3- parameter isoenzyme model. It appeared that immobilisation did not significantly change the mechanism of activity loss but stabilised a fraction of a stable isoform. Examination of time needed for 90% initial activity loss revealed that immobilisation prolonged that time from 8 min (native enzyme) up to 155 min (SBA-15SF).
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is an important factor used to measure water pollution. This article reviews recent developments of microbial biosensors with respect to their applications for low BOD estimation. Four main methods to measure BOD using a biosensor are described: microbial fuel cells, optical methods, oxygen electrode based methods and mediator-based methods. Each of them is based on different principles, thus a different approach is required to improve the limit of detection. A proper choice of microorganisms used in the biosensor construction and/or sample pre-treatment processes is also essential to improve the BOD lower detection limit.
There are certain well-known methods of diminishing concentrations of nitrogen compounds, but they are ineffective in case of nitrogen-rich wastewater with a low content of biodegradable carbon. Partial nitritation followed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process appear to be an excellent alternative for traditional nitrification and denitrification. This paper presents the feasibility of successful start-up of Anammox process in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR). It was shown that the combination of membrane technology and Anammox process allowed to create a new highly efficient and compact system for nitrogen removal. It was possible to achieve average nitrogen removal efficiency equal to 76.7 ± 8.3%. It was shown that the start-up period of 6 months was needed to obtain high nitrogen removal efficiency. The applied biochemical model of the Anammox process was based on the state-of-the-art Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM 1) which was modified for accounting activity of autotrophs (nitrite-oxidising bacteria and nitrateoxidising bacteria) and anammox bacteria. In order to increase the predictive power of the simulation selected parameters of the model were adjusted during model calibration. Readjustment of the model parameters based on the critically evaluated data of the reactor resulted in a satisfactory match between the model predictions and the actual observations.
A kinetic model to describe lovastatin biosynthesis by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a batch culture with the simultaneous use of lactose and glycerol as carbon sources was developed. In order to do this the kinetics of the process was first studied. Then, the model consisting of five ordinary differential equations to balance lactose, glycerol, organic nitrogen, lovastatin and biomass was proposed. A set of batch experiments with a varying lactose to glycerol ratio was used to finally establish the form of this model and find its parameters. The parameters were either directly determined from the experimental data (maximum biomass specific growth rate, yield coefficients) or identified with the use of the optimisation software. In the next step the model was verified with the use of the independent sets of data obtained from the bioreactor cultivations. In the end the parameters of the model were thoroughly discussed with regard to their biological sense. The fit of the model to the experimental data proved to be satisfactory and gave a new insight to develop various strategies of cultivation of A. terreus with the use of two substrates.
Biological regeneration of water and organic sorbents used in the absorption of hydrophilic and hydrophobic pollutants, respectively, was studied. In both cases biodegradation takes place in a membrane bioreactor. In the case of organic sorbents regeneration of the biodegradation process is integrated with the extraction of a given pollutant to water phase. In experiments carried out in this work, the proposed systems were tested using a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. For hydrophilic compounds experiments were performed using alcohols (1-butanol and 2-propanol) as model substrates. Applying the mathematical model of a membrane bioreactor elaborated previously, the values of pollutant concentration were determined and positively verified in the experiments. This system of water sorbent regeneration is fully satisfying. The process of biodegradation integrated with extraction was analysed on the basis of model compounds such as benzene and toluene. The study confirmed a possibility of organic sorbent (silicone oil) regeneration. However, due to a very high partition coefficient of benzene or toluene between the organic and aqueous phases, the process could be considered only for the case of their high concentrations in the gas directed to absorption.
This study investigated the quantity and distribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aerobic granules. Results showed that EPS play an important role in the formation and stabilisation of granules. The content of EPS significantly increases during the first weeks of biogranulation. An analysis of EPS in the granules revealed that the protein level was 5 times higher than in polysaccharides. The increase of protein content correlated with the growth of cell hydrophobicity (r2 = 0.95). EPS and hydrophobicity are important factors in cell adhesion and formation of granules.
The aim of this work was also to determine the distribution of EPS in the granule structure. In situ EPS staining showed that EPS are located mostly in the center of granules and in the subsurface layer. The major components of the EPE matrix are proteins, nucleic acids and β-polysaccharides. These observations confirm the chemical extraction data and indicate that granule formation and stability are dependent on protein content.
The purpose of the studies was to estimate efficiency of delivering nebulised drugs into the lower respiratory tract through endotracheal tubes (ET tubes) which are commonly used in the treatment of uncooperative patients. Water solution of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) was nebulised with a constant air flow (25 l/min). Experimental studies were done for eight ET tubes with varying sizes (internal diameter, length) and made of two different materials. Size distribution of aerosol leaving ET tubes was determined with the use of aerosol spectrometer. Fine Particle Fraction (FPF) and Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) were calculated for the aerosol leaving each tube. Additionally, mass of the Disodium Cromoglycate deposited into each endotracheal tube was determined. ET tubes can significantly influence the parameters of delivered aerosol depending on their diameter. FPF of aerosol delivered in to the respiratory tract is lower if small endotracheal tubes are used. However, MMAD and FPF for large endotracheal tubes are almost identical with MMAD and FPF from nebuliser. The results indicate that a substantial fraction of large droplets is eliminated from the aerosol stream in long endotracheal tubes (270 mm). In this case the mass of drug delivered through ET tubes is reduced but the content of small droplets increases (high value of FPF).
The world in 21st century is facing the problem of growing energy consumption while the supply of fossil fuels is being reduced. This resulted in the development of research into the use of renewable energy sources and development of new technologies for energy production. In Polish conditions the development of agricultural biogas plants finds its legitimacy in the document developed by the Ministry titled "Trends in agricultural biogas plants in Poland in 2010-2020”. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the weather conditions and the degree of nitrogen fertilisation on yield of reed canary grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) and to determine their susceptibility to anaerobic digestion, and usefulness of the production of biogas. Carried out experiments showed that increasing nitrogen fertilisation (from 40 to 120 kg N/ha) linearly increased canary grass green biomass yield from 32 to 46.3 t/ha. However, the highest biogas yield 126 m3/ha was obtained when 80 kg N/ha was applied.
All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.
The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely: • New Advanced (Nano) Materials • Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy) • Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals) • Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)
Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.
Manuscripts are submitted for publication via Editorial System. When writing a manuscript, you may choose to submit it as a single Word file to be used in the refereeing process. The manuscript needs to be written in a clear way. The minimum requirements are: • Please use clear fonts, at least 12 points large, with at least 1.5-line spacing. • Figures should be placed in relevant places within the manuscript. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate caption and legend, if necessary.
• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did. Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process. • Use Simple Present to refer to figures and tables. Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process. • Use Simple Present to talk about your conclusions. You move here from describing your results to stating what is generally true. Example: The process is caused by changes of nitrogen concentration. • Capitalise words like ‘Table 2’, ‘Equation 11’. • If a sentence is longer than three lines, break down your writing into logically divided parts (paragraphs). Start a new paragraph to discuss a new concept. • Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural). • It is fine to choose either British or American English but you should avoid mixing the two. • Avoid empty language (it is worth pointing out that, etc.).
After the first revision, authors will be requested to put their paper in the correct format, using the below guidelines and template for articles.
1. Header details a. Title, b. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors, c. Institution(s) (affiliation), d. Address(es) of authors, e. ORCID number of all authors. f. Information about the corresponding author: name and surname, email address.
2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
3. Keywords – up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
4. Text a. Introduction. In this part, the rationale for research and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature. b. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental setup, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into the following sections: Methods, Results, Discussion. c. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in a concise style in a separate chapter. A presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable. d. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript. Their form should be of a vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, all figures, including drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded in a separate file via Editorial System in one of the following formats: bmp, tiff, jpg or eps. For editorial reasons, graphic elements created with MS Word or Excel will not be accepted. They should be saved as image files in the source program. Screen shots will not be accepted. The basic font size of letters used in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final size. e. Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template. f. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with an appropriate caption and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.
5. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
6. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
7. Literature citations The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors: • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996), • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004), • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).
In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.
Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.
Examples of citation for:
Articles Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044. Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found) Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421. Chapters in books Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101. Conferences ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.
Authors are kindly asked to provide a cover letter which signifies the novelty and most important findings of the manuscript as well as the significance to the field.
During submission, authors will be asked to provide the individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing.
Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 4 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. Suggested reviewers may not reside in the same country as the corresponding author and remain subject to the Editors' discretion in appointing manuscripts for review.
Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle, authors or institutions will have to cover the expenses amounting to 1500 PLN netto (excl. VAT) per published article. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing expenses. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published.
Publication Ethics Policy
Editors of the "Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at: http://publicationethics.org/files/u2/Best_Practice.pdf
Authorship Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.
Disclosure and conflict of interests Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.
Standards in reporting Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.
Access to and storage of data Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.
Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.
Confirmation of sources Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.
Important errors in published papers When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.
Originality and plagiarism Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.
Ghostwriting Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.
Duties of the Editorial Office
Editors’ duties Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.
Decisions on publication Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.
Selection of referees Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).
Confidentiality Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.
Discrimination To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.
Disclosure and conflict of interests Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.
Referees' duties Editorial decisions Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.
Back information In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.
Objectivity standards Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.
Confidentiality All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.
Anonymity All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.
Disclosure and conflict of interests Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.
Confirmation of sources Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.
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