@ARTICLE{Prószyński_Witold_Seeking_2014, author={Prószyński, Witold}, volume={vol. 63}, number={No 1}, journal={Geodesy and Cartography}, howpublished={online}, year={2014}, publisher={Commitee on Geodesy PAS}, abstract={From the theory of reliability it follows that the greater the observational redundancy in a network, the higher is its level of internal reliability. However, taking into account physical nature of the measurement process one may notice that the planned additional observations may increase the number of potential gross errors in a network, not raising the internal reliability to the theoretically expected degree. Hence, it is necessary to set realistic limits for a sufficient number of observations in a network. An attempt to provide principles for finding such limits is undertaken in the present paper. An empirically obtained formula (Adamczewski 2003) called there the law of gross errors, determining the chances that a certain number of gross errors may occur in a network, was taken as a starting point in the analysis. With the aid of an auxiliary formula derived on the basis of the Gaussian law, the Adamczewski formula was modified to become an explicit function of the number of observations in a network. This made it possible to construct tools necessary for the analysis and finally, to formulate the guidelines for determining the upper-bounds for internal reliability indices. Since the Adamczewski formula was obtained for classical networks, the guidelines should be considered as an introductory proposal requiring verification with reference to modern measuring techniques.}, type={Artykuły / Articles}, title={Seeking realistic upper-bounds for internal reliability of systems with uncorrelated observations}, URL={http://journals.pan.pl/Content/98354/PDF/art9_Proszynski.pdf}, doi={10.2478/geocart-2014-0009}, keywords={internal reliability, upper-bounds, law of gross errors, probability-derived formula, binomial distribution}, }