Life Sciences and Agriculture

Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica


Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica | 2021 | Vol. 63 | No 2 |

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Morpho-anatomical characteristics of Vaccinium myrtillus, V. uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea leaves from several sites of the Central Balkans were examined. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time morpho-anatomical leaf traits of these species in the studied populations and to identify traits that follow a specific trend along the gradients of climate factors. Leaf traits that discriminate Vaccinium species were as follows: depth of the adaxial cuticule (AdC), thickness of the palisade tissue (PT), thickness of the spongy tissue (ST), height of the abaxial epidermal cells (AbE), height of the abaxial cuticule (AbC) and leaf thickness (LT). Populations of V. myrtillus were characterized by the smallest, and populations of V. vitis-idaea by the highest values for AdC, PT, ST, AbE and LT. Additionally, AbC was significantly larger for V. uliginosum in comparison to two other species. On the basis of morpho-anatomical traits, intraspecific variability of the studied species was explored by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). CA based on 10 morpho-anatomical traits showed that populations of V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum that grew at lower altitudes (characterized by higher mean annual temperature) are more similar to each other. Especially V. myrtillus was responsive to the elevational gradient and exhibited the highest plasticity in morpho-anatomical leaf traits. Populations of V. vitis-idaea had a different pattern of differentiation along the elevational gradient. CA showed that the populations at the lowest and at the highest altitudes were more similar according to the morpho-anatomical leaf traits, meaning that evergreen leaves were more resistant to environmental conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ivana Bjedov
Dragica Obratov-Petković
Vera Rakonjac
Dragana Skočajić
Srđan Bojović
Milena Marković
Zora Dajić-Stevanović

  1. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
  2. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade – Zemun, Serbia
  3. Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković“, Bulevar Despota Stefana142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a process that allows genetic material to flow between even distantly related organisms. It is primarily observed in bacteria and protists but also in different lineages of eucaryotes. The first HGT cases in plants were discovered at the beginning of the 21st century and have been intensively studied ever since. Researchers have placed particular emphasis on the plant kingdom, especially parasitic plants. This review presents the current state of knowledge about this phenomenon in plants, with a special focus on parasitic plants.
Among the described factors facilitating HGT, close physical contact between organisms is believed to be one of the most important. It is noted especially in the case of parasitism and similar relationships. For that reason, reported occurrences of this phenomenon in holoparasites, hemiparasites, and mycoheterotrophic plants are compared. The mechanisms responsible for HGT in plants still remain unclear, however, the studies described here suggest that both DNA and RNA may play a role as a carrier in that process. Also, the transfer between genomes of different organelles in the cell, intracellular gene transfer (IGT), and its relationships with HGT are described. The occurrence of the HGT and IGT phenomena concerning different genomes: nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid is discussed in the review. Finally, some future areas of research in the field are proposed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Góralski
Magdalena Denysenko-Bennett
Anna Burda
Natalia Staszecka-Moskal
Dagmara Kwolek

  1. Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
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In the predominantly polyploid and apomictic genus Hieracium (Asteraceae) sexual diploids are extremely rare and their distribution is limited mainly to the refugial areas of southern Europe. Here we characterized for the first time the chromosome complex of the relict species Hieracium bracteolatum from a diploid population on the Greek Island of Evia. The cytogenetic analysis based on classical chromosome staining, C-banding/DAPI method and fluorescence in situ hybridization with rDNA probes (rDNA-FISH) showed no major differences in the karyotype structure between this relict species and other diploids within the genus, especially in terms of chromosome morphology and rDNA location. Our study is part of the still very scarce research on the karyotype organization in sexual Hieracium taxa.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak
Magdalena Żytkowicz
Dagmara Kwolek
Zbigniew Szeląg

  1. Department of Plant Breeding, Physiology and Seed Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Łobzowska 24, 31-140 Kraków, Poland
  2. Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
  3. Pedagogical University of Cracow, Institute of Biology, Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland

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CHEN BY, HENEEN WK, SIMONSEN V. 1989. Comparative and genetic studies of isozymes in resynthesized and cultivated Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., and B. alboglabra Baitey. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 77: 673-679.
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