Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The traction power supply system based on Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT) technology is one of the new traction power supply technologies that will be developed in the future. As the core part of rail transit energy transfer and conversion, the traction power supply system is not only the critical system for the safe operation of rail transit, but also the main source of its failures, so it is of great significance to study its reliability. In this paper, the reliability analysis of the non-contact traction power supply system based on mobile ICPT technology is carried out using the method of (Fault Tree Analysis) FTA combined with triangular fuzzy theory and grey relational theory. Firstly, the fault tree of the system is established, and the minimum cut sets and structure function of the fault tree are obtained. Then the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to represent the probability of the bottom events, and the fuzzy probability of the top event and the fuzzy importance of the bottom events are determined, after that, the maximum probability of failure of the top event is obtained. Finally, the grey relational degrees of each minimum cut set are obtained and ranked. Furthermore, in order to prove the correctness of this method, the trapezoidal fuzzy FTA is introduced and compared with it. Both research results show that the loosely coupled transformer and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module are the weak links of the system. The results obtained are consistent and realistic, which proves the correctness of the method selected in this article.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Yanxia Pei
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xin Li
2

  1. Key Laboratory of Opto-Technology and Intelligent Control Ministry of Education, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
  2. School of New Energy and Power Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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Abstract

The work is intended to extend the application of a smart transformer on a radial distribution system. In this paper, an updated algorithm on the backward/forward power flow is introduced. The so-called direct approach of power flow is employed and analyzed. In addition, the paper focused on integrating a smart transformer to the network and solving the updating network also using the direct approach load flow. The solution of the smart transformer using the direct approach power flow method is quite straightforward. This model is applied to radial distribution systems which are the IEEE 33- and IEEE 69-bus systems as a case study. Also, the paper optimizes the best allocation of the smart transformer to reduce the power losses of the grid.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ibrahem Mohamed A. Mahmoud
1 2
Tarek Saad Abdelsalam
2
Rania Swief
2

  1. Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
  2. Electrical Power and Machine Engineering Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract

In this study, the inverter in a microgrid was adjusted by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) based coordinated control strategy to ensure the stability of the isolated island operation. The simulation results showed that the voltage at the inverter port reduced instantaneously, and the voltage unbalance degree of its port and the port of point of common coupling (PCC) exceeded the normal standard when the microgrid entered the isolated island mode. After using the coordinated control strategy, the voltage rapidly recovered, and the voltage unbalance degree rapidly reduced to the normal level. The coordinated control strategy is better than the normal control strategy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pan Wu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaowei Xu
2

  1. Power Supply Co., Ltd.Luqiao District, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China
  2. Power Supply Co., Ltd.Tonglu, Zhejiang Province, China
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Abstract

The structure of the low-voltage distribution network often changes. The change of topology will affect fault detection, fault location, line loss calculation, etc. It leads to fault detection error, inaccurate positioning and abnormal line loss calculation. This paper presents a new method to automatically identify the topology of a low-voltage power grid by using the injection current signal. When the disturbance current signal is injected into the low-voltage line, the current upstream of the injection point will change, and the current downstream of the injection point will not be affected. It is proved theoretically by using the superposition principle. With this method, the disturbance current signal can be injected into the line in turn, and the topology can be identified by observing the change of the current in line. The correctness of the method is proved by Matlab simulation and laboratory verification.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haotian Ge
1
Bingyin Xu
1
Wengang Chen
1
Xinhui Zhang
1
Yongjian Bi
1

  1. Shandong University of Technology, China
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Abstract

In order to optimise the operation state of the distribution network in the presence of distributed generation (DG), to reduce network loss, balance load and improve power quality in the distribution system, a multi-objective fruit fly optimisation algorithm based on population Manhattan distance (pmdMOFOA) is presented. Firstly, the global and local exploration abilities of a fruit fly optimisation algorithm (FOA) are balanced by combining population Manhattan distance ( PMD) and the dynamic step adjustment strategy to solve the problems of its weak local exploration ability and proneness to premature convergence. At the same time, Chebyshev chaotic mapping is introduced during position update of the fruit fly population to improve ability of fruit flies to escape the local optimum and avoid premature convergence. In addition, the external archive selection strategy is introduced to select the best individual in history to save in external archives according to the dominant relationship amongst individuals. The leader selection strategy, external archive update and maintenance strategy are proposed to generate a Pareto optimal solution set iteratively. Lastly, an optimal reconstruction scheme is determined by the fuzzy decision method. Compared with the standard FOA, the average convergence algebra of a pmdMOFOA is reduced by 44.58%. The distribution performance of non-dominated solutions of a pmdMOFOA, MOFOA, NSGA-III and MOPSO on the Pareto front is tested, and the results show that the pmdMOFOA has better diversity. Through the simulation and analysis of a typical IEEE 33-bus system with DG, load balance and voltage offset after reconfiguration are increased by 23.77% and 40.58%, respectively, and network loss is reduced by 57.22%, which verifies the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Minan Tang
1
Kaiyue Zhang
1
Qianqian Wang
2
Haipeng Cheng
3
Shangmei Yang
1
Hanxiao Du
1

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China
  2. College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, China
  3. CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co., Ltd. Qingdao, China
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Abstract

With the rapid development of distributed photovoltaic grids, more and more users join the power sales side, and the traditional power grid operation mode is no longer applicable. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the distributed photovoltaic grid under overload conditions, and further summarizes the problems that the distributed photovoltaic grid will face under these conditions. To solve these problems, the alliance chain technology was introduced into the distributed photovoltaic grid.At the same time, this paper establishes a photovoltaic pricing strategy that considers power transmission loss. Finally, the feasibility of the theory is verified by constructing a virtual model.
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[15] Harinder Pal Singh, Singh Brar Yadwinder, Kothari D.P., Reactive power based fair calculation approach for multiobjective load dispatch problem, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 719–735 (2019).
[16] Qi Bing, Xia Yan, Photovoltaic trading mechanism design based on block chain incentive mechanism, Power system automation, vol. 43, no. 09, pp. 132–139+153+140–142 (2019).
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Authors and Affiliations

Ran Ding
1
Chaohan Feng
1
Dongsheng Wang
1
Rongfu Sun
1
Longyang Wang
2
Shaojun Yuan
3

  1. Dispatch Center, State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company, 56 Caishikou South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China
  2. School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, China
  3. Chengde Power Supply Company, China
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Abstract

Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is utilized in finding the optimal combination of the real power generation that minimizes total generation cost, yet satisfying all equality and inequality constraints. It plays a significant role in planning and operating power systems with several generating stations. For simplicity, the cost function of each generating unit has been approximated by a single quadratic function. ELD is a subproblem of unit commitment and a nonlinear optimization problem. Many soft computing optimization methods have been developed in the recent past to solve ELD problems. In this paper, the most recently developed population-based optimization called the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) has been utilized to solve the ELD problem. The results for the ELD problem have been verified by applying it to a standard 6-generator system with and without due consideration of transmission losses. The finally obtained results using the SSA are compared to that with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been observed that the obtained results using the SSA are quite encouraging.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ramesh Devarapalli
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nikhil Kumar Sinha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bathina Venkateswara Rao
2
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Knypinski
3
ORCID: ORCID
Naraharisetti Jaya Naga Lakshmi
4
ORCID: ORCID
Fausto Pedro García Márquez
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of EE, B. I. T. Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand – 828123, India
  2. Department of EEE, V R Siddhartha Engineering College (Autonomous), Vijayawada-520007, A.P., India
  3. Poznan University of Technology, Poland
  4. SR Engineering College: Warangal, Telangana, India
  5. Ingenium Research Group, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
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Abstract

An essential task of the interconnected power system is about how to optimize power plants during operation time which is known as economic dispatch. In this study, the Fruit Fly Optimization method is proposed to solve problems of dynamic economic dispatch in an electrical power system. To measure the performance of the method, a simulation was conducted for two different electric systems of the existing Sulselbar 150 kV thermal power plant system in Indonesia with two objective functions, namely fuel costs and active power transmission losses, aswell as the 30-bus IEEE standard system with five objective functions namely fuel costs, transmission losses (active and reactive power), a reactive power reserve margin, and an emission index by considering a power generation limit and ramp rates as the constraints. Under tested cases, the simulation results have shown that the Fruit Fly Optimization method can solve the problems of dynamic economic dispatch better than other existing optimization methods. It is indicated by all values of the objective functions that are lowest for the Fruit Fly Optimization method. Moreover, the obtained computational time is sufficiently fast to get the best solution.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Haripuddin Arsyad
1 2
Ansar Suyuti
1
Sri Mawar Said
1
Yusri Syam Akil
1

  1. Electrical Engineering Department, Hasanuddin University, Gowa, Indonesia
  2. Electrical Engineering Department, Makassar State University, Makassar, Indonesia
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Abstract

In this paper,we proposed a modified meta-heuristic algorithm based on the blind naked mole-rat (BNMR) algorithm to solve the multiple standard benchmark problems. We then apply the proposed algorithm to solve an engineering inverse problem in the electromagnetic field to validate the results. The main objective is to modify the BNMR algorithm by employing two different types of distribution processes to improve the search strategy. Furthermore, we proposed an improvement scheme for the objective function and we have changed some parameters in the implementation of the BNMR algorithm. The performance of the BNMR algorithm was improved by introducing several new parameters to find the better target resources in the implementation of a modified BNMR algorithm. The results demonstrate that the changed candidate solutions fall into the neighborhood of the real solution. The results show the superiority of the propose method over other methods in solving various mathematical and electromagnetic problems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Taherdangkoo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Abstract

Accurate and reliable fault location is necessary for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of the VSC-HVDC transmission system. This paper proposed a single-terminal fault location method based on the fault transient characteristics of the two-terminal VSCHVDC transmission system. The pole-to-pole transient fault process was divided into three stages, the time-domain expression of the DC current during the diode freewheel stage was used to locate the fault point, and a criterion for judging whether the fault evolves to the diode freewheel stage was proposed. Taking into account the enhancing effect of the opposite system to the fault current, theDCside pole-to-ground fault networkwas equated to a fourth-order circuit model, the relationship of fault distance with the characteristic roots of fault current differential equationwas derived, and the Prony algorithmwas utilized for datafitting to extract characteristic roots to realize fault location. A two-terminal VSC-HVDC transmission system was modelled in PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation result verifies that the proposed principle can accurately locate the fault point on the VSC-HVDC transmission lines.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanxia Zhang
1
Anlu Bi
1
Jian Wang
1
Fuhe Zhang
1
Jingyi Lu
1

  1. School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, China
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Abstract

To reduce the influence of the disorderly charging of electric vehicles (EVs) on the grid load, the EV charging load and charging mode are studied in this paper. First, the distribution of EV charging capacity and state of charge (SOC) feature quantity are analyzed, and their probability density function is solved. It is verified that both EV charging capacity and SOC obey the skew-normal distribution. Second, considering the space-time distribution characteristics of the EV charging load, a method for charging load prediction based on a wavelet neural network is proposed, and compared with the traditional BP neural network, the prediction results show that the error of the wavelet neural network is smaller, and the effectiveness of the wavelet neural network prediction is verified. The optimization objective function with the lowest user costs is established, and the constraint conditions are determined, so the orderly charging behavior is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. Finally, the influence of charging mode optimization on power grid operation is analyzed, and the result shows that the effectiveness of the charging optimization model is verified.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhiyan Zhang
1
Hang Shi
1
Ruihong Zhu
1
Hongfei Zhao
2
Yingjie Zhu
3

  1. College of Electrical Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
  2. State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Maintenance Branch Company, China
  3. Nanjing Electric Power Design Institute Co., Ltd. China
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Abstract

High-frequency resonance is a prominent phenomenon which affects the normal operation of the high-speed railway in China. Aiming at this problem, the resonance mechanism is analyzed first. Then, model predictive control and selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (MPC-SHEPWM) combined control strategy is proposed, where the harmonics which cause the resonance can be eliminated at the harmonic source. Besides, the MPC is combined to make the current track the reference in transients. The proposed control has the ability to suppress the resonance while has a faster dynamic performance comparing with SHEPWM. Finally, the proposed MPC-SHEPWM is tested in a simulation model of CRH5 (Chinese Railway High-speed), EMUs (electric multiple units) and a traction power supply coupled system, which shows that the proposed MPC-SHEPWM approach can achieve the resonance suppression and shows a better dynamic performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sitong Chen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaoqiang Chen
1
Ying Wang
1
Ye Xiong
1

  1. School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, China
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Abstract

To evaluate the occupational safety of a high signal operator exposed to the electric field induced by contact wires with a frequency of 50 Hz and a voltage of 27.5 kV, this study established a model of a high signal operator working in the vicinity of singleand double-track railways. The electric field distribution in the operator’s body and his head were calculated and analyzed during the operation using the finite element method (FEM). The calculated results were compared with the international standard occupational exposure limits formulated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and action levels (ALs), exposure limit values (ELVs) in Directive 2013/35/EU (EU Directive). In the case of a single-track railway exposure, the maximum electric field strength in the worker’s body, in the scalp layer, and inside the brain are 227 mV/m, 2.76 kV/m, and 0.14 mV/m, respectively. For a double-track railway exposure, the maximum internal electric field strength of the operator is 310 mV/m, which is 37.85% of the occupational exposure basic restriction limit. The maximum electric field strength in the head layers is 3.42 kV/m, which is 34.2% of the occupational exposure reference level and 34.2% of the low ALs. The maximum electric field strength of the brain is 0.19 mV/m, which is 0.19% of the occupational basic restriction limit and 0.135% of the sensory effects ELVs. Results show that the electric field exposure of the high signal operator to contact wires in single- and double-track railways is lower than the occupational exposure limits provided by the ICNIRP and EU Directive standards and is thus regarded as safe forworkers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chang-Qiong Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mai Lu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
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Abstract

The static series synchronous compensator (SSSC) has demonstrated its capability in providing voltage support and improving power system stability. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamic interaction stability mechanism of a hybrid renewable energy system connected with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) energy with the SSSC. For this purpose, a linearized mathematical model of this modified hybrid single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) power system is developed to analyze the physical mechanism of the SSSC in suppressing oscillations and the influence on the dynamic stability characteristics of synchronization. Typical impacting factors such as the series compensation level, the SOFC penetration and tie-line power are considered in the SMIB and two-area systems. The impact of dynamic interactions on enhancing damping characteristics and improving transient performance of the studied systems is demonstrated using eigenvalue analysis and dynamic time-domain simulations, which validates the validity of the proposed physical mechanism simultaneously.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ping He
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pan Qi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yuqi Ji
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhao Li
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.5 Dongfeng Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou, 450002, China
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Abstract

Due to the extensive use of nonlinear power consumers, there is currently an urgent problem of high harmonic content in power supply networks. The paper provides experimental investigations and a study of the nature of the change in the main harmonic components of the current in the neutral working wire of a three-phase four-wire network with a voltage of 0.38 kV. The purpose of this study is to compare the load readings on the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of the current in the neutral working wire of the 0.38 kV network with the linear and non-linear load. To study the effect of load changes on the amplitude-phase-frequency characteristics of currents in the linear and zero working wires at the input of the load node, measurements were carried out by certified electrical measuring instruments. The analysis of the results obtained for the load node whose power was formed mainly by a lighting system with fluorescent and LED lamps and a system of office electrical receivers (computers, copiers, printers, scanners, etc.) was performed. It can be concluded that a current comparable to the currents of the linear wires of the network flows from the load node with the predominant nonlinear power receivers through the zero-working wire. At the same time, in the zero-working wire of the network, the third harmonic currents prevail over the main frequency currents.
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Authors and Affiliations

Igor V. Yudaev
1
Evgeny V. Rud
2
Mikhail A. Yundin
1
Tamara Z. Ponomarenko
2
Aleksandra M. Isupova
1

  1. Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute of Don State Agrarian University, Russia
  2. ICPE Energy Institute for Advanced Studies of the PJSC “Kubanenergo”, Russia
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Abstract

This article discusses the most important issues regarding the implementation of digital algorithms for control and drive technology in industrial machines, especially in open mining machines. The article presents the results of tests in which the algorithm and drive control parameter settings were not selected appropriately for voltage-fed induction motors, and where the control speed was not verified by any of the available motoring or simulation methods. We then show how the results can be improved using field-oriented control algorithms and deep parameters analysis for sensorless field-oriented performance.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Jabłoński
1
Piotr Borkowski
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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