Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 68 | No 4 |

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Vibrational stress relief (VSR) treatment as a method of stress relief is currently performed on different alloys and sizes as an appropriate alternative for thermal stress relief (TSR) method. Although many studies have been performed to extend the knowledge about this process, analytical studies in the field of VSR process seems to require wider efforts to introduce the concept more clearly and extensively. In this study, a theoretical model is proposed based on an analytical equation. The proposed equation was modified in terms of required variables including frequency, amplitude, and vibration duration to encompass more practical parameters compared to the previous models. Thus, essential VSR parameters including the number of cycles as a representative of treatment duration, strain rate as a representative of frequency, and the amplitude were embedded in the model to make it comprehensively practical. Experimental tests were also performed and residual stress distribution was measured by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) method for certain points to compare the experimental results with the theoretical output. An acceptable range of conformation was observed between theoretical and experimental results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mehdi Jafari Vardanjani
Jacek Senkara

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran.
  2. Department of Welding Engineering,Warsaw University of Technology,Warsaw, Poland.
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The structural damages can lead to structural failure if they are not identified at early stages. Different methods for detecting and locating the damages in structures have been always appealing to designers in the field. Due to direct relation between the stiffness, natural frequency, and mode shapes in the structure, the modal parameters could be used for the purpose of detecting and locating the damages in structures. In the current study, a new damage indicator named “DLI” is proposed, using the mode shapes and their derivatives. A finite element model of a beam is used, and the numerical model is validated against experimental data. The proposed index is investigated for two beams with different support conditions and the results are compared with those of two well-known indices – MSEBI and CDF. To show the capability and accuracy of the proposed index, the damages with low severity at various locations of the structures containing the elements near the supports were investigated. The results under noisy conditions are investigated by considering 3% and 5% noise on modal data. The results show a high level of accuracy of the proposed index for identifying the location of the damaged elements in beams.
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Authors and Affiliations

Reza Taghipour
Mina Roodgar Nashta
Mohsen Bozorgnasab
Hessam Mirgolbabaei

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
  2. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
  3. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States of America.
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In this work, continuous third-order sliding mode controllers are presented to control a five degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) exoskeleton robot. This latter is used in physiotherapy rehabilitation of upper extremities. The aspiration is to assist the movements of patients with severe motor limitations. The control objective is then to design adept controllers to follow desired trajectories smoothly and precisely. Accordingly, it is proposed, in this work, a class of homogeneous algorithms of sliding modes having finite-time convergence properties of the states. They provide continuous control signals and are robust regardless of non-modeled dynamics, uncertainties and external disturbances. A comparative study with a robust finite-time sliding mode controller proposed in literature is performed. Simulations are accomplished to investigate the efficacy of these algorithms and the obtained results are analyzed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ratiba Fellag
1 3
Mohamed Guiatni
Mustapha Hamerlain
Noura Achour

  1. Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Alger, Algérie.
  2. Laboratoire LCS^2, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, Alger, Algérie.
  3. Laboratoire LRPE, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Alger, Algérie.
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The article describes motion planning of an underwater redundant manipulator with revolute joints moving in a plane under gravity and in the presence of obstacles. The proposed motion planning algorithm is based on minimization of the total energy in overcoming the hydrodynamic as well as dynamic forces acting on the manipulator while moving underwater and at the same time, avoiding both singularities and obstacle. The obstacle is considered as a point object. A recursive Lagrangian dynamics algorithm is formulated for the planar geometry to evaluate joint torques during the motion of serial link redundant manipulator fully submerged underwater. In turn the energy consumed in following a task trajectory is computed. The presence of redundancy in joint space of the manipulator facilitates selecting the optimal sequence of configurations as well as the required joint motion rates with minimum energy consumed among all possible configurations and rates. The effectiveness of the proposed motion planning algorithm is shown by applying it on a 3 degrees-of-freedom planar redundant manipulator fully submerged underwater and avoiding a point obstacle. The results establish that energy spent against overcoming loading resulted from hydrodynamic interactions majorly decides the optimal trajectory to follow in accomplishing an underwater task.
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Authors and Affiliations

Virendra Kumar
Soumen Sen
Shibendu Shekhar Roy

  1. Robotics and Automation Division, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, India
  2. Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India
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Optimization of cooling systems is of major importance due to the economy of cooling water and energy in thermal installations in the industry. The hydrodynamic study of the film is a prerequisite for the study of the intensity of the heat transfer during the cooling of a horizontal plate by a liquid film. This experimental work made it possible to quantify the hydrodynamic parameters by a new approach, a relation linking the thickness of the film to the velocity was found as a function of the geometrical and hydrodynamic characteristics of the sprayer.
A new statistical approach has been developed for the measurement of the velocity, the liquid fluid arriving at the edge of the plate and having velocity V is spilled out like a projectile. The recovering of the liquid in tubes allowed us to quantify flow rates for different heights positions relative to the plate, statistical processing permitted us to assess the probable velocity with a margin of error.

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[22] J. Cai and X. Zhuo. Researches on hydrodynamics of liquid film flow on inclined plate using diffuse-interface method. Heat and Mass Transfer, 56:1889-1899, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s00231-020-02829-6.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abdelbaki Elmahi
Touhami Baki
Mohamed Tebbal

  1. Faculty of Mechanics, Gaseous Fuels and Environment Laboratory, University of Sciences and Technology of Oran Mohamed Boudiaf (USTO-MB), El Mnaouer, Oran, Algeria.
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This study aims to optimize the 2-cylinder in-line reciprocating compressor crankshaft. As the crankshaft is considered the "bulkiest" component of the reciprocating compressor, its weight reduction is the focus of current research for improved performance and lower cost. Therefore, achieving a lightweight crankshaft without compromising the mechanical properties is the core objective of this study. Computational analysis for the crankshaft design optimization was performed in the following steps: kinematic analysis, static analysis, fatigue analysis, topology analysis, and dynamic modal analysis. Material retention by employing topology optimization resulted in a significant amount of weight reduction. A weight reduction of approximately 13% of the original crankshaft was achieved. At the same time, design optimization results demonstrate improvement in the mechanical properties due to better stress concentration and distribution on the crankshaft. In addition, material retention would also contribute to the material cost reduction of the crankshaft. The exact 3D model of the optimized crankshaft with complete design features is the main outcome of this research. The optimization and stress analysis methodology developed in this study can be used in broader fields such as reciprocating compressors/engines, structures, piping, and aerospace industries.
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[12] W. Li, Q. Yan, and J. Xue. Analysis of a crankshaft fatigue failure. Engineering Failure Analysis, 55:13-9-147, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2015.05.013.
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[14] Y. Shi, L. Dong, H.Wang, G. Li, and S. Liu. Fatigue features study on the crankshaft material of 42CrMo steel using acoustic emission. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 11(3):233–241, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11465-016-0400-3.
[15] J. Yao and J. Zhang. A modal analysis for vehicle’s crankshaft. 2017 IEEE 3rd Information Technology and Mechatronics Engineering Conference, pages 300–303, 2017. doi: 10.1109/ITOEC.2017.8122303.
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[17] B. Yu, Q. Feng, and X. Yu. Dynamic simulation and stress analysis for reciprocating compressor crankshaft. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 227(4):845–851, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0954406212453523.
[18] A. Arshad, S. Samarasinghe, M.A.F. Ameer, and A. Urbahs. A simplified design approach for high-speed wind tunnels. Part I: Table of inclination. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 34(6):2455–2468, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s12206-020-0521-9.
[19] A. Arshad, S. Samarasinghe, and V. Kovalcuks. A simplified design approach for high-speed wind tunnels. Part-I.I: Optimized design of settling chamber and inlet nozzle. 2020 11th International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ICMAE), pages 150–154, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ICMAE50897.2020.9178865.
[20] A. Arshad, M.A.F. Ameer, and O. Kovzels. A simplified design approach for high-speed wind tunnels. Part II: Diffuser optimization and complete duct design. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 35(7):2949–2960, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s12206-021-0618-9.
[21] A. Arshad, N. Andrew, and I. Blumbergs. Computational study of noise reduction in CFM56-5B using core nozzle chevrons. 2020 11th International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ICMAE), pages 162-167, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ICMAE50897.2020.9178891.
[22] A. Arshad, L.B. Rodrigues, and I.M. López. Design optimization and investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of low Reynolds number airfoils. International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, 22:751–764, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s42405-021-00362-2.
[23] A. Arshad, A.J. Kallungal and A.E.E.E. Elmenshawy. Stability analysis for a concept design of Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). 2021 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT), pages 1–6, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ICMT52455.2021.9502764.
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[25] F. Rodriges Minucci, A.A. dos Santos, and R.A. Lime e Silva. Comparison of multiaxial fatigue criteria to evaluate the life of crankshafts. Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 11: New Developments in Simulation Methods and Software for Engineering Applications; Safety Engineering, Risk Analysis and Reliability Methods; Transportation Systems, pages 775–784. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. November 12–18, 2010. doi: 10.1115/IMECE2010-39018.
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[28] C. Cevik and E. Kanpolat. Achieving optimum crankshaft design – I. SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0930, 2014. doi: 10.4271/2014-01-0930.
[29] G. Mu, F.Wang, and X. Mi. Optimum design on structural parameters of reciprocating refrigeration compressor crankshaft. Proceedings of the 2016 International Congress on Computation Algorithms in Engineering, pages 281–286, 2016. doi: 10.12783/dtcse/iccae2016/7204.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Arshad
Pengbo Cong
Adham Awad Elsayed Elmenshawy
Ilmārs Blumbergs

  1. Institute of Aeronautics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Riga Technical University, Latvia
  2. Institute of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Riga Technical University, Latvia
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Considering the importance of gear systems as one of the important vibration and noise sources in power transmission systems, an active control for suppressing gear vibration is presented in this paper. A gear bearing model is developed and used to design an active control gear-bearing system. Two possible configurations of control system are designed based on active bearing and active gear-shaft torsional coupling to control and reduce the disturbance affecting system components. The controller for computing the actuation force is designed by using the H-infinity control approach. Simulation results indicate that the desired controller can efficiently be used for vibration control of gear bearing systems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amin Saghafi
Anooshirvan Farshidianfar

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, Iran
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

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Archive of Mechanical Engineering is published in English. Make sure that your manuscript is clearly and grammatically written. The content should be understandable and should not cause any confusion to the readers, including the reviewers. After accepting the manuscript for a publication in the AME, we offer a free language check service, for correcting small language mistakes.

Submission of Revised Articles

When revision of a manuscript is requested, authors are expected to deliver the revised version of the manuscript as soon as possible. The manuscript should be uploaded directly to the Editorial System as an answer to the Editor's decision, and not as a new manuscript. If it is the 1st revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 60 days; if it is the 2nd revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 14 days. Additional time for resubmission must be requested in advance. If the above mentioned deadlines are not met, the manuscript may be treated as a new submission.

Outline of the Production Process

Once an article has been accepted for publication, the manuscript is transferred into our production system to be language-edited and formatted. Language/technical editors reserve the privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions of the journal. Once the article has been typeset, PDF proofs are generated so that authors can approve all editing and layout.


Proofreading should be carried out once a final draft has been produced. Since the proofreading stage is the last opportunity to correct the article to be published, the authors are requested to make every effort to check for errors in their proofs before the paper is posted online. Authors may be asked to address remarks and queries from the language and/or technical editors. Queries are written only to request necessary information or clarification of an unclear passage. Please note that language/technical editors do not query at every instance where a change has been made. It is the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried. Major alterations made will always be submitted to the authors for approval. The corresponding author receives e-mail notification when a PDF is available and should return the comments within 3 days of receipt. Comments must be uploaded to Editorial System.


The Editorial Board of the Archive of Mechanical Engineering (AME) sincerely expresses gratitude to the following individuals who devoted their time to review papers submitted to the journal. Particularly, we express our gratitude to those who reviewed papers several times.

List of reviewers of volume 68 (2021)
Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China
Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States
Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India
Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam
Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India
Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India
Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China
N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey
Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States
Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland
Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China
Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)
Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India
Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA
Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia
G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China
Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium
Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany
Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany
Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland
Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China
Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China

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